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C04-derivatives - Chem 227 F 2010 C4 Equivalence Points...

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Chem 227 — F 2010 C4: Equivalence Points from Derivatives of a Titration Curve Due Wednesday, September 23 by 10:00 p.m. Objectives: Learn how derivatives can be determined numerically from (x,y) data and to observe the behavior of first and second derivatives near an end point. Also, get experience with functions to select and employ specific points in a data set. First and second derivatives are useful to reveal subtle features in the behavior of a wide variety of signals, from spectroscopic to chromatographic to electrochemical. You will use them to precisely locate the equivalence point in a titration curve. Derivative signals can be obtained directly from analog signals by certain electronic devices, but digital data require the use of a method of approximation. Frequently, the first derivative is approximated as the ratio of the differences in the y and x values for two successive data points. For a potentiometric titration, (dE/dV) k E k / V k = [(E i+1 E i ) / (V i+1 V i )] where E is the measured potential, and V is the added volume of titrant.
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