Lecture+8+to+print+Agriculture+for+IAD+Agents - Thursday...

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Thursday, January 28 Lecture 8 Agriculture for the Future Development Agent: A Brief and Incomplete Foundation Introduction: Although IAD has many schools of approach, persistent themes include higher productivity, social justice and equity, and environmental protection. An important theme in IAD is sustainability, and sustainable systems generally consider all of these elements. Agriculture that pollutes and diminishes the natural fertility of the soil cannot provide a sustainable future. Even though production demands prohibit reverting to a fully organic agriculture, it should become sustainable in the sense of time, maintaining biological health of the soil, and preserving the environment. The purpose of this lecture is to introduce the class to several foundation elements of agriculture in light of this sense of sustainability, and hopefully, in a manner that will be especially appropriate to those who will engage in development projects. By far, the greatest weight of attention is given to plant production. This is far more commonly practiced than animal production, and the latter often depends upon the former. In some development philosophies, it is considered to be by far the most ethical as well, but I believe that animal production has a great deal of applicability to sustainable international agricultural development as well. Crop plants are used for: Food Forage Fiber Oil Sugar Medicine Fuel Please remember that the whole gamut of considerations in IAD is great, and there are huge areas omitted in this presentation. A particular omission is economics. Some elements of agriculture in development schemes Crops and cropping systems : Soils : Crop nutrition : Conservation : Pests : Diseases : Weeds : Crop plant physiology : Crops and cropping systems : Interacting and overlapping components Rotations Management in variable climates Matching variety with geography
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Managing the soil Crop nutrition Establishment and management Weed management Pest and disease management Irrigation management Marketing Norfolk four-course rotation: Combined cereals, clovers, and sheep. 1One year wheat—stubble and weeds grazed by sheep, whose manure enriched the field 2Spring-sown oats or barley 3Clover grazed by sheep in winter and spring, then grown fully for hay, tehn grazed at end of season, with more manure then added fro stable 4Turnips grown for animal feed Companion crops are two mutually beneficial crops grown together in the same field. The corn and beans of the Latin American milpa system serve as a classic example. Companion crops must have similar cultivation and management needs as well as an ease of separate harvest from each other. Soils
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Lecture+8+to+print+Agriculture+for+IAD+Agents - Thursday...

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