LectureGuide+to+prepare+for+IAD+10+Midterm+2010-1

LectureGuide+to+prepare+for+IAD+10+Midterm+2010-1 - Guide...

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Unformatted text preview: Guide to prepare for IAD 10 Midterm 2010 to be given on Thursday, February 4, 2010 Questions will be taken from both the lectures and the readings. As there is so much material to cover, I advise students to pay particular attention to themes that heavily overlapped both lecture and readings, such as the main goals of international agricultural development, potentials of and challenges to IAD, the outlines of Modernization and Dependency Theories in the Reader, the history of agricultural development in Europe and the Middle East, and multi-disciplinary considerations in IAD schemes and programs. Another general theme of heavy emphasis was comparing and contrasting European and North American development history with philosophies and designs of IAD approaches. Within this theme, many sub-themes are considered, such as the importance of organic matter, capital, rotation schemes, and technological and biological improvements for agricultural production. Also, pay particular attention to ideas that resurfaced in more than one lecture. Midterm Exam Review 1. Agricultural Evolution and Agricultural Development Selection and Domestication Paleolithic (Evans) Neolithic (Evans) Centers of Important Species Origins: Movements and changes Vavilov, Leibig , Darwin, (Evans) Wild crop relatives: e.g., Teosinte Landrace Colombian exchange (Old World ↔ New World >1500 AD) Centers of Crop Domestication Mesoamerica – maize, beans, squash Andes – potatoes Amazon – cassava, peanut Middle East– wheat, barley E/SE Asia – rice Africa (non-center) – sorghum, pearl millet, yams, coffee Components of Agricultural Systems consist of complex sub-systems Sub-systems – PHYSICAL (soils and plant nutrients, water, limiting physical elements -e.g. acidity, aluminum) BIOLOGICAL/GENETIC (crops, animals, pests, pathogens, weeds, beneficial organisms) HUMAN (customs and rules - e.g., land tenure, attitudes toward risk taking -, social organization -e.g., social class and gender rules -, economic organization - e.g., markets for land and labor, forms of capital). Goals for organizing agricultural systems (1) maximize production of subsistence or cash crops: Full rural employment; capital inputs; (2) maximize efficiency of use of land and labor: Recycling organic matter; rotation systems; all family members except youngest children involved; peasant class; etc. (3) minimize risk : Stay with traditional methods and local varieties; minimize debt to obtain capital (4) achieve equity : Distribution and human needs; within a country; considerations of race/ethnicity, class, gender; within family units; international considerations Note the complex challenges and inherent conflicts when trying to reconcile these four goals. Which are taken into account by Modernization and Dependency Theories? How so? Which of the goals do you think are the top priorities of each of these two major theories?...
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LectureGuide+to+prepare+for+IAD+10+Midterm+2010-1 - Guide...

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