mvs 320 review 2 - -Brain Measurement -structural: provides...

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-Brain Measurement -structural: provides a picture of the brain -computerized tomography (CT) scans -magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) -diffusion weighted assesses white matter integrity -functional: provides view of some aspect(s) of brain activity -positron emission tomography (PET) scans -electroencephalography (EEGs) -APs create a charge, there are different EEG signatures associated with different behavioral states -functional MRI -sensitive to changes in blood oxygenation, active areas become slightly engorged with oxygenated blood, excess O2 binds to deoxyhemoglobin reducing concentration -extracellular recordings (APs) -Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) -electrical current induced in magnetic coil, can depolarize neurons close to the brain’s surface, response can be either inhibitory or excitatory, depending on current amplitude and frequency Cerebellum -role in regulating movement and controlling posture (indirect) -10% volume, 50 % neurons of brain
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cortex: - input:output ratio 40:1 - -all input= excitatory, all output = inhibitory via purkinje neurons -mossy fibers: influence p cell indirectly via interneurons (granule cells +)
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-climbing fibers: directly on p cells very powerful synapse Functional subdivisions 1) vestibulocerebellum – input from vestibular system output to vestibular nuclei, function balance, flocculonodular lobe 2) spinocerebellum – medial section is vermis, efferent signals to fastigial nucleus, from fastigial nucleus to brainstem to spinal cord, cerebral cortex to spinal cord, controls axial and proximal muscles involved in posture (balance), gait, Receives input from neck and trunk, vestib system, visual system. Projects to descending motor pathways that originate in the brain stem (vestibulospinal & reticulospinal) and those that originate in the cortex (corticospinal tract). This affects bilateral descending pathways- it’s a postural control pathway, want to control both sides of the body!!. Projects to descending motor pathways that originate in the brain stem (vestibulospinal & reticulospinal) and those that originate in the cortex (corticospinal tract). Fastigial nucleus. Receives info from the limbs and controls the dorsolateral descending systems (one that we have not talked about- the rubrospinal efferent pathway, and the corticospinal tract) of the same side. This is a limb control pathway- only want to control one side. - comparator function: update and correct for errors in ongoing movement - efferent copy: compare actual movement with desired movement 3) Cerebrocerebellum - Receives cortical input via the pontine nuclei (brainstem), influences motor and premotor cortex via the thalamus. Involved with movement initiation, planning, and timing.
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mvs 320 review 2 - -Brain Measurement -structural: provides...

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