MVS 330 Final Lab Report Last

# MVS 330 Final Lab Report Last - Introduction Figure skaters...

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Introduction: Figure skaters perform a variety of physically tasking skills, including stroking, jumping, and spinning. Jumping several times a day can cause risks to ankles, knees, or hips due to the great force that is not only required to get into the air, but even more so on the landing. Few studies have been performed on specifically figure skating, due to the uniqueness and growing rareness of the tasks the sport demands. Figure skaters perform a number of jumps, however the most popular one is a single axel. As can be seen in figure 1, in order to perform a single axel one takes off forward from a left outside forward edge, then turn around one and a half times in the air, and lands on the right backward outside edge. Figure 1: Still frames of the infamous Peggy Flemming performing a single axel. The more force that can be generated on the take-off of the jump not only leads to a more impressive jump, but also leads to the ability of completing a greater number of rotations in the air. The most focused joint in figure skating is the skater’s knee. Many exercises are enforced from a young age, which helps strengthen and control the muscles around the knee. However, an important joint that is often overlooked is the ankle joint. The Achilles tendon is often not commonly strengthened or thought of because it is inside of the boot. However, it is speculated that by increasing the force generated by the Achilles tendon, a skater could increase the size of the jump, and difficulty of the skill. Assumptions: In order to carry out our calculations, we had to make multiple assumptions. 1. Subject’s Mass (based on previous labs) 2. Subject’s Length of Force (based on shoe size)

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MVS 330 Lab #4 – Final Project Megan Gueli & Erika Blankenship 3. Many variables used were drawn from information and data from the Biomechanics in Sport Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine (2000) as edited by Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky. (These variables will be denoted with a “~” symbol). 4. Assumptions were also made from the King et al. “Biomechanical Comparison of Figure Skating Axel” jumps (1993) which claims “take-off angles were steepest for the triple axel, on average 43° as compared to 36° for the double axel and 32° for the single axel.” Since this study focuses on the takeoff of a single axel, the takeoff angle of 32 degrees was assumed as the angle of the Fgrf as well, which opposes the push of the skater. 5. Similarly, an assumption was made as to the insertion angle of the Achilles on the foot. (We based this assumption off of past inverse dynamic problems, in which the insertion site was 13 degrees.) ("King et al.")   Methods: For this study, the participant was a National and International single and pairs figure skater. Initially, a video was obtained at Yost Ice Arena at an evening practice. The video was then inserted into Logger Pro. Where appropriate coordinates of the take off motion were obtained for the hip, knee, and ankle joints. These values must be inserted
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