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All notes - Biology 1202 1/21/2011 3:38:00 PM Chapter 10...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology 1202 1/21/2011 3:38:00 PM Chapter 10 (17): Gene Expression and Regulation How are genes and Proteins related? How do we go from genes to physical structure? x Genes Determine protein structure x Protein structure determines the way the processes of life are carried out How are genes and proteins related? x Gene RNA to make protein x Gene: segment of DNA located at a particular place on a chromosome x DNA codes for specific A.A. sequence in a protein or for the RNA that helps make proteins DNA vs. RNA (Table 10-1) x DNA o Double stranded o Deoxyribose x RNA o Single Stranded o Ribose Three Types of RNA (Figure 10-2) x mRNA x rRNA o Large subunit o Small subunit o Catalytic Site x Transfer RNA tRNA o Anticodon Information flow DNA RNA How is Information in a gene Transcribed into RNA? Transcription: Four Steps x Chromosome o Initiation o Elongation o Termination o New RNA formed x RNA polymerase requires a DNA Template x DNA polymerase reads DNA and makes DNA How is the sequence of Messenger RNA molecule translate into protein? Language Barrier x Nucleic Acids o DNA- 4 nucleotides o RNA- 4 nucleotides x Proteins- 20 amino acids Genetic Code x Codon: o Triplet of nucleotides o Codes for one specific amino acid The Genetic Code: Table Translation: x Aka- Protein Synthesis o Requirements: mRNA rRNA tRNA Amino acids ATP Translation: Initiation (1) (Fig. 17-6a) x tRNA: secondary structure of DNA x Begin with Methionine Initiation (2): (Figure 17-6b) x Ribosomal subunit attaches to amino acids x Starts the frame in which sequence will be read Initiation (3): x Catalytic site x Second Binding site x Large ribosomal subunit Elongation 1: x Catalytic site Elongation 2: x Peptide bond forms with the help of ATP Elongation 3: x tRNA is either used or released Elongation 4: x Elongation 5: x Primary level of structure Termination: x stop codon Homeostasis must be achieved in each cell or else the cell will die. Complementary Base Pairing: (Figure 17-7) x Complementary DNA Strand: G-C, A-T, x mRNA: G, C, U, A x tRNA: anticodons x Protein: amino acids When we mutate the sequence we mutate the RNA How do mutations of DNA affect the function of Genes (proteins)? Mutations x Any change in the sequence of bases in DNA x 3 types o point mutation o Insertion Mutation (Frame shift mutation) o Deletion Mutation (Frame shift mutation) Point Mutation: Change one base pair x DNA polymerase making a mistake x DNA Repair Enzymes will correct the mistake x If they do not correct the right nucleotide then we get x Point Mutation in Sickle Cell Anemia Point Mutation Point Mutation have the most varied effects: (Table On Moodle) orig. CTC GAG Glu hydrophilic/acidic - DNA mRNA A.A Properties effect mut.1 CTT GAA Glu hydrophilic/acidic none mut.2CTA GAU Asp hydrophilic/acidic neutral mut.3 CAC GUG Val hydrophobic/neut lose fx mut.4 ATC UAG stop ends protein no fx Frame Shift Mutations In DNA x Insertion o New Nucleotide Base-pair inserted onto the middle of a gene...
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All notes - Biology 1202 1/21/2011 3:38:00 PM Chapter 10...

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