Final Notes - Biology1202 Wednesday,May11,2011...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology1202 Wednesday,May11,2011 1:43PM FinalExam  Fungi FormandFunction o Anatomy ­ ­HyphaeandMycelium Hyphae ­ ­threadlikefilamentsonecellthick Septatehypha Aseptatehypha/coenocytic Mycelium ­ ­interwovenmassofhyphae Cellwallscontainchitin o Immobile o Nodistinctembryoformedduringearlydevelopment o Nutrition ­ ­Chemoheterotrophic Exudeenzymesthatbreakdownorganicmoleculesthatfungicanabsorbanduseasa supplyofbothenergyandcarbon Saprobic ­ ­digestdeadorganismsandwasteproducts Parasitic ­ ­digestliveorganisms Mutuallysymbiotic ­ ­formassociationswithotherorganismsformutualbenefit FungalLifeCycles o Threeploidytypes Haploid ­ ­mostfungalhyphaeandallsporeshavehaploidnuclei Diploid ­ ­foundtransientlyduringthesexualphase(ifpresent) Heterokaryon ­ ­unfusednucleifromdifferentparentsoccupyingthesameunitof hypha o Reproduction Asexual ­ ­defultmodeunderstableconditions ­ ­sporesproduced Sexual ­ ­usuallyonlyunderstressfulconditions,sporesproduced,manymatingtypes possible Likehavingmanydifferentgenders Haploidsportsmaydisperselongdistancesfromfruitingbody Fusionofcompatiblehyphae(plasmogamy_ ­ ­initiatesaheterokaryoticphase Fusionofnuclei(karyogamy) ­ ­intiateszygoticphase Zygotelike Mitosisincellsproducessporesorcellsthatwillproducespores o FungalDiversity o Over100,000speciesdescribed o Over100additionalspeciesdescribedeachyear o 5phyla Chytrids ­ ­ancientgroup,divergedearliestfromtheotherfungi Aquatic,theonlyfungiwithflagellatedspores(zoospores) Saprobic(mostly) Parasitic(some) Zygomycetes ­ ­ZygoteFungi Sexualreproductionviazygosporangia(resistantheterokaryons)thatproduce geneticallyvariablespores Asexualreproductionviasporangiathatproducespores Mostlysaprobic Softfruitrotfungi,blackbreadmold Someparasites Singlecelledmicrosporidia Glomermycetes ­ ­Arbuscularmycorrhizae Associatedwith90%ofplantspecies Ascomycetes ­ ­SacFungi Sexualreproductionviasporesproducedinasci(saclikecases) Asexualreproductionvianakedspores(conidia) Manysaprobicspecies ­ ­scarletcups Manyparasites ­ ­ofplantsandanimals ­ ­candidayeasts Manysymbiontswithplants ­ ­truffles Morels ­ ­delacacyordeadly Sourcesofmanyinterestingchemicals Penicillium ­ ­sourceofpenicillin SourceofLSD Yeastsusedtobrewbeerandbake Basiciomycetes ­ ­ClubFungi Commonmushroom Puffballs Stinkhorns Shelffungi Plant ­parasiticsmutsandrusts Sexualreproductionviaclub ­shapedreproductiovestructures,basidia, containingbasidiospores Asexualreproductionisuncommon Basidiagenerallyfoundonsurfaceofgills Deuteromycetes ­ ­Imperfectfungi Eclectivgroupofunclassifiedspecies Sexualstructuresunknown ­ ­haventbeenclassified Includesmoldsandmildews PlantStructureandGrowth 2MainGroups ­ ­MonocotsandEudicots o Monocot(corn) ­ ­seedlingseachhave1cotyledon(seedleaf) Cotyleonremainsconfinedwithintheseed o Eudicots(bean) ­ ­seedlingseachhave2cotyledons(seedleaves) OrganSystemsofFloweringplants o o RootSystem Primaryroot ­ ­firsttoappear Eudicot ­ ­taprootsystem Monocot00fibrousrootsystem Roothairs ­ ­extensionsofepidermalcells Dramaticallyincreasearoot'ssurfaceareaforabsorbingwaterandnutrients Foodstorageisafunctionofallroots,butsomearehighlymodifiedforsotrage Abovegroundroots(aerialorprop)rootsgiveextrasupport "Breathing"rootsconductoxygentowaterloggedroots Therootsofmanyorchidsarephotosynthetic StemSystem Someplantshavespecializedwater ­storagestems Stolons"runners"arehorizontal,wanderingabovegroundstems Rhizomesarehorizontalbelowgroundstems Tubers(potatoes)areswollenendsofrhizomesspecializedforfoodstorage Bulbsarevertical,undergroundstemsconsistingmostlyoftheswollenbasesofleaves ofspecializedtostorefood Tendrills ­ ­specializedbranchesyhsyyeistaroundstructurestolendsupport Thorns ­ ­rigidsharpbranchesthatdeterpotentialherbivores(especiallymammalian browsers) Terminalbudsgenerallyexerciseapicaldominanceoveraxillarybuds Somearidadaptedplantshavesucculentleaves o Leavesspecializedintospineshelpdefendagainstherbivores Growth Undifferentiatedmeristematiccellsoccurinbuds Wholeplantgrowthisinterderminatebutgrowthofsomeorgansis determinate Whenacelldivies,thedaughtercellsgrowandtheymayspecializedepending especiallyonwheretheyarelocatedduringdevelopment Differentiatedcellscontributeto3tissuesystems DermalTissue(epidermus) Generallyasinglecelllayerthatcoverstheplant Absorptioninrootsystem Waterretentioninshootsystem,aidedbywaxycuticle VascularTissue Xylem ­ ­transportswateranddissolvedminerals Cellsaredeadatfunctionalmaturity Pholem ­ ­transportssugarsdissolvedinwater Cellsarealive GroundTissue Allnonepidermalnonvasulartissue Threeprincipletypes Parenchyma Thinwalled,livecells Performmostmetabolicfunctions Photosynthesis Foodstorage Synthesisandsecretion Collenchyma Cellswithunevenlythickenedwallsthatlacklignin Aliveatmaturity Groupedintostrandsorcylinderstoaidsupportwithout constrictinggrowth Sclerenchyma Verythickwalls,hardenedwithlignin Deadatmaturity Givestrengthandsupporttofullygrownpartsoftheplant Fibersoccuringroups Sclereidsimparthardnesstonutshellsandthegrittytexture topears PrimaryGrowthinRoots Primarygrowthinrootslengthensrootsfromthetips Therootcapcontinuallysloughsoff Apricalmeristemproducesthreeprimarymeristems Firstcellselongate,differentiateandmature Protodermcellsbecometheepidermis Groundmeristemcellsbecomethecortex Procambiumcellsbecomethevascularstele Pericycle ­ ­outtermostlayerofstele Cellsretainmeristematiccapabilitiesandproduce lateralroots Endodermis ­ ­innermostlayerofcortex Regulateflowofsubstancesintothevasculartissuesofthe stele Casparianstrip ­ ­disallowsflowofsubstancesexceptthrough theendodermalcellsthemselves PrimaryGrowthinshoots Lengthensshootsfromthetimes Apricalmeristemproducesthesamethreeprimarymeristems Protoderm ­ ­developintoepidermis GroundMeristem ­ ­developsintogroundtissue Procambium ­ ­developintovascularbundles Leavesarisefromleafeprimordiaontheflanksoftheapicalmeristem Axilarrybuds(thatcouldproducelateralbranches)developfromislands ofmeristematiccellsleftatthebasesofleafprimordia SecondaryGrowthinstems GirthGrowth Periderm ­ ­Corkcambiumandcork Bark ­ ­Alltissueoutsidevascularcambium Wood ­ ­secondaryxylem Heartwood ­ ­nolongerconductswater,butstrengthensstem Sapwood ­ ­conductswaterandminerals o Nutrition Mostfromsoil(minerals),water(hydrogenandoxygen)orair(carbondioxideand oxygen) Nitrogenandphosphorouslimiting(plantgrowthislimitedbyuthesupplyofthese nutrients) Acquisitionofsoilnutrients(minerals) Plantsconcentratemineralsinsidetheirtissues Mineralskeptinvascularcylinder o o Symbiontshelpgetnutrients Mycorrihizae ­ ­fungus Nitrogen ­fixingbacteriahelpplantabsorbnitrogen(ammoniumornitrate ions) Acquisitionofwater Osmosis Transportofmineralsandwater Cohesionofwatermoleculesmakesthemsticktogether,resistbeingpulledapart Tension ­ ­waterispulledup Transpiration Waterevaporatesoutofleafstoma Leafisdry,pullswateroutofxylem Waterleavingxylempullsupthewaterbehindit Unidirectional ­ ­controlledbyopeningandclosingofstomata Transportofsugar"sourceandsinkmodel" Movesfromsources(thingsthatmakesugar)tosinks(thingsthatuseupsugar Goesupanddownandcanchangedirection PlantReproductionandDevelopment AsexualReproduction o Byfragmentation,eithernaturally(runners)orartificial(clippings) Sexualreproduction ­ ­combinesgenesfrom2differentparents,offspringgeneticallydifferent EvolutionofFlowers o Gymnosperms(earliestseedplants) Windpollinationusedforfertilization Insectsstartedcarryingpollemgrainsfrommaletofemaleplants150MYA Plantsenticedinsectswithfoodintheformofpollen(proteinrich)andfemalecones (sugarrich) o Angiosperms ­ ­floweringplants,developed130millionyearsago.Flowersattractpollinators FlowerStructure:partsevolvedfromleaves o Completeflowereshave4parts Sepals ­ ­sometimescolored ­ ­attractors Petals ­ ­colored,patternedtoattract Stamens ­ ­malereproductiveparts,composedoffilamentandanther Carpels ­ ­femalreproductiveparts,composedofstigma,styleandovary o Incompleteflowers ­ ­lackoneormoreofthe4parts Coevolutionofflowersandpollinators o Wind ­pollinatedflowers ­ ­inconspicuousandunscented,produceLOTSofpollen ­ ­hitormiss strategy o Animalpollinatedflowers Attractpollinatorsusingcolorsandscents Stopunwantedvisitorsusingphysicalmodifications ­ ­tubesthatonlyspecific pollinatorscanaccess Ensurepollinationisthegoal Angiospermgametophytedevelopment o Developinsidesporophyteflowers,verysmallandparasitic(cantliveontheirown) o Pollengrainsarethemalegametophyte Developswithinpollensacs 2spermcells Embryosac ­ ­femalegametophyte,produceseggcells.Sacdevelopmentresultsin7 cells 1eggcell 1primaryendospermcellwith2nuclei 5cellsthatdegenerate Pollinationandfertilization o Pollenlandsoncarpel o Tubegrowsfrompollendownthroughcarpel o 2spermgodowntubetoeggfordoublefertilization 1spermfertilizeseggtoformdiploidzygote 1spermfertilizesprimaryendospemcelltoformtriploidtissue Developmentofseedsandfruits o o o Functionoffruitistoaidinseeddispersal Mechanical Wind Water Animal Birds Cassoway 3partsofplantenbryo Hypocotyl(root) Epicotyl(shoot) Cotyledon ­ ­seedleaves,dicots ­ ­2,monocots ­ ­1 ...
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