exam two review - Exam 2 Review 1. Complete the table...

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Exam 2 Review 1. Complete the table regarding the processes of aerobic respiration. a. Location Carbon input Carbon output ATP used ? ATP generate d? Reduced Compoun ds generated ? Oxyg en used? CO 2 produce d? Glycolysi s cytoplasm glucos e 2 pyruvate 2 4 ATP 2 NADH no no Pyruvate Oxidation Intermembrane space 2 pyruva te 2 Acetyl coA no no 2 NADH no 2 CO 2 Kreb’s Cycle Mitochondrial matrix 2 acetyl coA Nothing (OAA regenerate d) no GTP 6 NADH no 4 CO 2 ETC and oxidative phosphor ylation Inner mitochondrial membrane none none none ~32 ATP None – uses reduced compoun ds to regenerat e oxidized (NAD+ and FAD) 6 O 2 no b. Which reactions of glycolysis are irreversible and why? Hexokinase (#1), Phosphofructokinase (#3), pyruvate kinase (#10) they release too much energy going forward that the energy requirement to perform the reverse reaction is too unfavorable (too + delta G) c. Where is substrate level phosphorylation observed and where is oxidative phosphorylation observed to produce ATP? Substrate level phosphorylation – glycolysis (steps 7, 10) **This covers most of the material for the exam but does not include all of it. BE SURE TO ALSO STUDY YOUR NOTES AND LEARNING OUTCOMES**
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d. Compare and contrast the processes of oxidative phosphorylation and substrate level phosphorylation (energy source and phosphate source). Oxidative Phosphorylation: energy source = concentration gradient built up by ETC (PMF) Phosphate source= inorganic phosphate pumped into matrix using the gradient Substrate level phosphorylation: energy source= released from hydrolyzing high energy phosphate bond of Substrate Phosphate source: substrate 2. a. Explain the special regulation of Phosphofructokinase by ATP. ATP is both a substrate and inhibitor. Has two sites, catalytic site and allosteric (regulatory site). Allosteric site has higher Km because it has lower affinity for ATP and will only bind ATP when the concentration is high. Active Site (catalytic site) has lower Km because it has a higher affinity for ATP and will bind it when ATP conc is low to commit F6P to go through glycolysis and generate ATP. b.What is important about the step of glycolysis that is catalyzed by phosphofructokinase ? PFK is the first committed step of glycolysis. After conversion of F6P to F1,6BP by PFK the cell has no option but to complete glycolysis and form pyruvate. Before this step F6P can be used for other things. This is why PFK is allosterically inhibited when ATP is high because there is no need to continue going through glycolysis if the cell does not need energy. 3. What is gluconeogenesis and how is it different from glycolysis? Gluconeogensis occurs when blood glucose is low. It is basically the reverse of glycoysis and makes glucose from pyruvate, fatty acids or glycerol so glycolysis can be used to make energy. IT DOES NOT MAKE ENERGY ITSELF, only makes glucose. Some of the reactions are catalyzed by different enzymes because some of the steps for glycolysis are irreversible. 4. a. What are the two main ways of regulating enzyme activity?
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This note was uploaded on 03/16/2012 for the course BIO 301 taught by Professor Tepperman during the Spring '12 term at University of Cincinnati.

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exam two review - Exam 2 Review 1. Complete the table...

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