BIS 104 PQ answers __1 - _4_

BIS 104 PQ answers __1 - _4_ - 3 What is angiogenesis and...

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BIS 104 PQ answers (#1 – 4) 1. State the HYPOTHESIS that is being tested in the PNAS article by S. De, et al . Expression of the integrin a5b3 by tumor cells regulates tumor cell VEGF expression, thereby enhancing tumor growth and angiogenesis. (in this case, hypothesis = title of article) 2. For each if the items listed below, describe its composition and its function. A. VEGF / VEGFR2 These are both proteins. VEGFR2 is a trans-membrane receptor found in the PM of endothelial cells, and is activated by binding its ligand, VEGF. VEGF is a soluble protein synthesized and secreted by tumor cells. Activation of VEGFR2 stimulates angiogenesis. B. INTEGRINS Integrins are a family of trans-membrane proteins that serve as cell adhesion receptors and may also function in trans-membrane signaling (both outside-in and inside-out) across the PM.
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Unformatted text preview: 3. What is angiogenesis and how is it involved in tumor growth? Angiogenesis refers to the sprouting of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. This is induced by a specific signal (e.g., VEGF / VEGFR2 interaction). It is thought to play a vital role in the survival and growth of solid tumors. 4. What are the biological model systems that S. De, et al . use to test their hypothesis? In vitro : established human cancer cell lines (LNCaP prostate cancer; MBA breast cancer). These cell lines have been further modified in this study by transfecting them with both normal and mutant versions of genes coding for a5b3 integrin. In vivo : human sc xenografts (LNCaP and MBA cells injected sub c utaneously into SCID mice)...
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