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Unformatted text preview: Soc 120: Marriage and the Family
Lecture 16: Work and Families II Prof. Elwert did'low'economic'status'propel' increase'or'did'desire'propel' increase))>'BOTH risen'without'any'interrup3ons' since'WWII,'since'2000'it'has' been'falling'slightly' Review increase'of'mothers' (moreworking'who'have'of' young'children PUSH: 1)'women'have'more'educ'than' in'the'past'so'their'3me'in'the' labor'force'is'much'more'valuable 2)'liberaliza3on'of'gender'role' aftudes'so'women'can'work'and' be'accepted' Female labor force participation Reasons for increase (pull/push) demise'of'breadwinner/homemaker'model**'important'change'in' Mothers time with children
family'has'more'money'if'the' wife'works'which'is'POSITIVE'but' money'is'bought'with'3me'(3me' spent'away'from'kids) American'family''so'that'most'families'today'are'dual'income'earners PULL: decline'in'earning'in'lower)middle' class'))>'economic'necessity' whether'they'wanted'or'not' Remarkable fact: despite higher fem LFP, time spent with children may not have declined
since'1965,'sociologists'collected'3me'diaries'(studies'where'sociologists' go'into'American'homes)'that'give'us'insight'in'the'min)by)min'life'of'the' American'family))>'employed'mothers'spend'less'3me'with'their'kids'than' non)employed'mothers'BUT'1)'the'difference'is'far'smaller'than'people' used'to'this'(less'than'10%)'2)'between'1960)1990'the'amount'of'3me' spent'with'kids'has'decreased'very'li;le'*complete'surprise'because' female'LFP'went'up'drama3cally* female'LFP'can'go'up' without'comprising' 3me'with'kids' 1 Preview Mothers' time with children Why has it not systematically decreased? Housework & care work Second shift Accommodations, strategies, reasons Power & authority Family myths Hochschild: Nancy and Evan Holt 3)7='about'changes'over'3me,'refer'to'
1)2='not'about'changes'over'3me freeing'up'women's'3me'to'work'and' spend'3me'with'kids 3.#to#keep#the#home#in#tact#for#1990: 5winter:#keep#house#warm#by#single# stove#and#coal#(more#effecAve)#or# wood#(less#effecAve) 5get#water#from#well#gallon#at#a#Ame 5laundry#do#by#hand#or#over#the#well55 >#iron#everything#you#wash 5food#preparaAon#(no#fridge#or#freezer)# or#grow#on#food#in#backyard 5dishwashing55>#Ame#saver 5vacuum#cleaners55>#Ame#saver (ALL#TAKE#AWAY#WORK#WOMEN# USED#TO#DO) Outsourcing: 5early#20th#century,#middle5upper#class# women#employed#servants#to# supervise#household 5today,#employ#people#to#do#standard# household#work#(cleaning#women) 5childcare#outsourced ******************KNOW FOR TEST*********************************************
Susan,'famous' sociologist' Mothers' Time With Kids Bianchi: female LFP hasn't systematically reduced mother's time with children. Recently, there's even been an increase in mom's time with kids What's going on? 1. People overestimate time non-employed women spend w/ kids is'very'low))>'working'at'least'1'hour'for' 2. ~half of employed married women w/ young kids only work part pay'during'a'week time 3. Mechanization & outsourcing housework ********* Less housework in general over time meal'prepara3on,'cleaning Employed women do even less housework threshold'for'calling'someone'employed' 4. Men do more housework (but still gender gap), freeing up mothers' time to spend with kids 5. Rise of preschool enrollment li;le'kids'aren't'at'home'as'much))>'outsourching 6. Fewer children black'AND'white'women'have'only'2'kids'per'household
1. More time per child 2. Fewer years w/ young children enables rising LFP
shorter'period'in'mom's'life' surrounded'by'very'li;le'kids 7. Less leisure time for working mothers (preserving time with kids)
American'women'work'hard'to'protect'the'3me'that'they' can'spend'with'their'child))>'work'more'hours'in'the'labor' force'and'subs3tute'other'3me'such'as'leisure'3me'
cost'of'working'and' spending'3me'with'kids' causes'severe'decrease'in' mother's'leisure'3me 2 1960s,'non)employed' women'spent'40'hours' on'housework today,'non)employed'women' spend'as'much'3me'as' employed'women'did'half' century'ago Source: Bianchi 2000 about'father's' 3me'with'kids fathers'spending'far'less' 3me'with'kids'than' mothers'but'doing'more Source: Bianchi 2000 3 Gender Division of Household Labor Let s look housework in greater detail Less housework overall Mechanization Lower standards Outsourcing Gender gap in housework has declined steeply Women still do more housework then men Continuing gender division in tasks Benefits men as there s less outdoor/repair to do Trends: 1)'less'housework'to'be'done'overall 2)'women'do'more'housework'than' men 3)'gender'gap'in'household'labor'has' decrease'steeply 4)'con3nuing'gender'division'in'the' kinds'of'tasks'that'men'and'women'do Housework by Gender
3me'trends'of'housework'by'men'and'women decrease increase close'of'gender'gap'
core'housework' consumes'far'more'3me' than'men'tradi3onally'do due'to'women'doing' less Sayer and Bianchi (2000), p. 297 way'household'labor'is'divided'heavily'favors'men 4 public'goods:'good'and'services' produced'by'a'person'in'a'way'that'the' product'benefits'everyone' ex:'childcare'b/c'if'parents'bring' children'up'they'contribute'to'the' common'good,'they'work,'pay'taxes ex:'eldercare'b/c'if'family'decided'to' not'care'for'their'elders,'society'would' Care Work and Housework Care work: face-to-face activity in which one person cares for dependent other E.g. childcare, eldercare 88%'of'eldercare'works'are'women,'95%'of'childcare'workers'are'women Mostly done by women Care housework as public good Care work increasingly outsourcedold'people'spend'3mes'in'hospitals'or' Problem: care work wage penalty nursing'homes'(medical'profession) Care workers earn about 25% less than people with comparable non-care employment. Women s work, normatively devalued to'many'people'sounds'like'no'work'at'all:'gender'discrimina3on Creates public goods, free rider problem nego3ate'hard'enough'b/c' Job satisfaction vs. wages
care'workers'don't' its'intrinsically'meaningful' rise'of'childhood'educa3on Care work movement result'of'underpayment' childrearing'is'ever) more'outsourced' same'with'elder'care The Second Shift Important concept
dual'income'earners Men work a single shift in the LM; working women work a second shift at home after hours Describes gender division of HH labor until 1990s 80s'+'90s Evidence for equalizing hours Total hours worked (LM market + house) by men and women about equal in most recent studies (~65h/week) Less second shift concerns for current generation
on'average,'men'work'more' hours'in'the'labor'force'and' women'work'more'at'home Big question: do equal hours imply equality? Men and women may work the same hours, but they don t perform the same tasks. Ask: who gets to decide who does which task? 5 Power & Authority Power: ability to force a person to do something even doesn't'need'to'be'yelling'at' against their will Needn t involve constant open enforcement. May look like screaming'but'can'be'a' voluntary compliance if person anticipates enforcement compliance
have' authority' if'other's' agree Authority: the acknowledged right of someone to supervise and control other s behavior Recognized legitimacy, importance of social construction Evaluation of gender division of housework often hinges on negotiating difference between power and authority among spouses Income, Gender Division of Labor, and Power
man'who'works'outside'home' can'transfer'money'to'other' rela3onships'where'as'women' cannot'transfer'care'work'to' other'rela3onships' work'benefits'man Men s greater LM participation confers power at home Income from market work: fungible Care work at home: not fungible (even liability) Children as relationship-specific investments Exchange theory Gender division of labor - self-reinforcing dependence of women on men (read textbook!) 6 Accommodating Inequality Hochschild: Nancy and Evan Holt Inequitable division of labor - marital dissatisfaction "Solutions" Family Myth Politics of (suppressed) comparison
wife'wants' equality' readjust' expecta3ons Q: How did they get there? Q: How fair do you consider this arrangement Leftovers Make sure also to read passages in book that we didn t discuss explicitly today (e.g. role conflict, spillover, unemployment, care work movement etc). *********** 7 ...
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- Fall '09