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Unformatted text preview: Soc 120: Marriage and the Family
Lecture 18: The Elderly & Grandparenting Prof. Elwert Review
primary socialization: happens during childhood Parents & children secondary socialization: learn to become part of a subgroup of a society; begins during late adolescence when youngens start noticing class differences Socialization control of behavior and strong emotional support Parenting styles: Baumrind 3 parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive Fathers Fathers DO matter in the education of children Education and class: Lareau
Lareau: How do kids fit into social groups defined by class Did a detailed ethnographic study which followed a number of families over the years in great detail she found: the educational differences are due to class position, not race; she also investigated how things that parents give to their kids lead to the perpetuation of parental class differences in the child generation (the intergenerational transmission of social class) authoritative style is to be preferred: moderate and reason Working class parents perceive childhood as a separate stage in life that should be enjoyed: the style of NATURAL GROWTH (little supervision); attitude towards authority as submissive Middle Class: Instill a sense of entitlement in interaction with authority figures: the middle class mother prepares her son for a doctors visit 1 Preview Elderly & grandparenting Rise of grandparents Living arrangements Care arrangements Grandparenting Widowhood effect Rise of Grandparenting Grandparenting emerged as mass grandparenting: second half phenomenon only since ~WWII of 20th century In 1900, <25% of newborns had four living grandparents, 20% of 30 yo had any living grandparents In 2000, >66%, >75% newborns, 30 year olds For the first time, most grandchildren and grandparents know each other
Most grandchildren get to know their grandparents and grandparents get to know their grandchildren 2 Rise of Grandparenting
WHY DID GRANDPARENTING EMERGE? Reasons Mortality decline Increased life expectancy (+ good years ) Gender and race differences People live long enough to meet grandkids Fertility decline Fewer births (and hence fewer siblings); emphasizes vertical kinship Americans have fewer kids which means each child has fewer siblings; kinship ties ACROSS rather than within generations more time with grandparents Youngest child leaves home earlier, More time to spend with grandchildren Measuring from age 1 cuts out infant mortality Increase in 14 years between 1900 and 1950 and 9 years between 1950 and 2007
Between 1900 and 2007, life expectancy increased by 23 years The average white lives to 78, the average black lives to 74 These heavily depend on class*** 100 years ago, the average black man and woman never got to meet their grandchildren 3 Fertility Decline
(Total Fertility Rate=TFR)
average TFR for women around baby boom in 1960 baby bust replacement Source: Population Reference Bureau based on NCHS data. Living Arrangements
Old people become dependent on others because they need help because they become frail social safety net where society pays into program to keep the elderly out of poverty (expensive programs) Increase in single living among elderly (60+) since mid-century Increase in single living due to increase
in inequality; single households are 1940: <10% live alone 2008: m20%, w40% live alone either young not earning their potential Reasons or old not earning their potential Cultural: Strong preference for independence rise of expressive individualism Economic: Because they can (increasing standard of living) enormous increase in national wealth has a lot to due with old people's ability to live alone Demographic: Gender difference in life expectancy
Women live longer than men, and increasingly live longer than men 4 Standard of Living Standard of living for the elderly has increased Social security benefits 1935: Medicare for almost all elderly Medicaid for poor (of any age) Some elderly continue to work But doesn't pay for nursing home care
since healthcare costs are expensive, medicare helps to keep elderly out of poverty Poverty among elderly Less than most people think m7%, w12% Into the 1970s, the majority of the poor were the elderly. Once social security and medicare came in, only about 10% of the elderly are considered poor today. 5 increase in labor force participation at old ages for americans age 55 and older; used to be that half of men age 55 and older used to work and about 1/4 of women used to work. This went on into the 1990s. Increasing of elderly in the labor force. Same today as about 35 40 years ago. Now, elderly can make money to avoid slipping into poverty Work at Older Ages: Men vs. Women During the recession: employment rates for the youngest have been hit the worst; increase in elderly employment during the recession is people age 55 and older; much of that has to do with the elderly postponing retirement or having to return to the workforce because their investments evaporated during the crash Employment Changes By Age During Recession :Who is Working More? 6 Social Security
Today everyone who has worked for a few years has some entitlement to social security A Federal social insurance program designed to insure against the risk of economic insecurity associated with a breadwinner's old age, death, or disability Nearly universal (workers & spouses) By far the largest income transfer program in the U.S. only 3.5% of the elderly receive veteran benefits 90% receive social security benefits (about 1/3 of income form social security) 25% of elderly still make money Percentage receiving income from specified source, 2006 7 Social Security and Poverty S.S. significantly reduces elderly poverty Alternative poverty calculations (2002) show anti-poverty effectiveness of the tried to find out how effective these anti-poverty programs are program:
poor without any transfers Percent poor before transfers = 49.9% Percent poor after social security=11.5% Percent poor after means-tested cash transfers (Official poverty rate)=10.4% After all taxes & near-cash transfers = 9.0%
food stamps and coupons they treat as if they are money poverty between 1960s and 2000 this graph doesn't prove causality illustrates the social expenditure to social security are strongly associated with decrease in poverty lifting people out of poverty comes with costs--> not free Engelhardt and Gruber. (2006) Social Security and the Evolution of Elderly Poverty. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 10466 8 increase in unemployment; obama taxcut medicare is consuming most of the GDP and a future prediction is that health care will consume most of the GDP in the future Elder Care
daughter caregiving is probably going to decline for 2 reasons 1. increase in female LFP so they don't have the time anymore to take care of ailing parents 2. decline in fertility which leads to fewer daughters around to take care of old parents Majority of disabled elderly cared for at own home by relatives (not nursing home) women take care of elderly= most Wives care for old men common Daughters for elderly parents, mothers Potentially decreasing due to Increasing female LFP Declining fertility - fewer daughters Precarious position of divorced fathers But note greater lifetime earnings of men
divorced men do not have the ability to contact their in laws because they do not speak to them anymore increase in female labor force participation decline in fertility which means we have fewer daughters around therefore there is less time being spent with women taking care of the elderly 9 more social and financial transfers down than up Mutual Assistance More assistance down than up!
more assistance downward Down (older to younger generation) Mostly direct assistance and grandchildren parents and grandparents provide financial assistance to children Financial assistance to children & grandchildren Childcare Up (younger to older generation) Mostly indirect assistance: Social security taxes
younger generation pays to old generations through social security system Direct assistance: Care for frail/disabled parent Grandparenting Increase in affectionate bonds High frequency of contact
talk to grandparents a lot; more opportunity and high frequency of contact Increase in direct parenting through grandparents
more than ever in American history, we have Multigenerational households education outcome of children is multigenerational households where grandchild ~4% of children the same as the normal Often divorced mothers w/children grandparents and parents live together household in response to crisis SameHS grad rate as 2-parent households Skipped generation households
~2% of children More prevalent for African American children (9%) Stress on grandparents grandchildren and grandparents without parents; could kids do less well in skipped generation be due to prison, sickness, or death households which puts enormous stress on grandparents 10 21 Percentage of all children under 18 who are living in Grandparents home Widowhood Effect
increasing mortality experienced by the survivor at the death of a spouse spouses lead more independent life styles Loss of spouse increases mortality by about 15-20% in old age for whites Central evidence for health benefits of marriage Found for bereaved men and women Loss of primary care giver (men) Loss of income (women) Long lasting (no apparent substitute) No apparent widowhood effect for blacks
blacks have more of a tendency to live with other kin rather than alone Likely because elderly AfAm are much more likely than whites to live with other kin (rater than alone) Greater independence of AfAm husbands and wives Blacks appear to benefit from marriage longer than whites 11 Whites: Widowhood Effect Mortality drops at marriage, spikes at death of spouse, stays elevated
mortality rate decreases once you get married, but when one spouse dies, morrtality increases No Widowhood Effect: No benefit from marriage, and no harm from widowhood Blacks: No Widowhood Effect: Benefit from marriage, but no harm (no mortality increase) from widowhood. (Stylized graph from Elwert and Christakis 2006) once married, both blacks and whites mortality decreases however blacks benefit from marriage longer blacks DONT experience the widowhood effect 12 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2012 for the course NUTR SCI 132 taught by Professor Anderson during the Fall '09 term at Wisconsin.
- Fall '09