Lecture 26 - !"#$#!!%...

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Unformatted text preview: !"#$#!!% &'(%!")*%+,--.,/0%,12%340%5,6.78% 90(3:-0%";*%&'(.,7%<'7.(8=%5,6.78% >4,1/0%?3%@'60%,12%?A-',2% <-'BC%D7E0-3% <-0F.0E% G 5,6.78%H%&'(.,7%<'7.(8%% G I07B,-0%,12%JI'-KB,-0L%34-':/4%340%,/0M%% G 5,6.78%>4,1/0%.1%340%N1.302%&3,30M% G 5,6.78%>4,1/0%I'-72E.20%% G &0('12%O06'/-,P4.(%Q-,1M.R'1% !% !"#$#!!% 1935: Social Security Act provided a government social safety net for those that have fallen in hard times without it being their fault (Great Depression). Unemployed were unemployed because they were living through the great deperession. Social Security Act addresses men because all income should be funnelled through the primary wage owner (men). Social security act forces women out of employment, specifically married women. This was a problem because high educated women were already working. Teachers were government employees and women were mainly secretaries. When they got married, the government said goodbye. Cultural shift in America. Come to believe that it is not okay for people to draw government checks no matter the economic disfortune (ideal of selfreliance). 1. This caused women to become proportionally poor. 2. Crack epidemic. Those that were on crack and those that were poor combined. Welfare reform gathered steam. In 1996, government killed AFDC and made PRWORA. Reconciliation act switched the country from welfare to workforce (poor couldn't get a check, they needed to work). TANF is temporary aid for needy families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was primarily meant for women. Given to widows and then to women. If a women was single and going through hard times, she should get married. Women that used to be married, but lived in a family wage system where they weren't supposed to work, the government would support them (when widowed). Broadened to all poor families with children, and men with children. In the end, AFDC was predominantly for divorced or never married single mothers. AFDC was created as an entitlement program. To call this an entitlement program, if anyone falls under that threshold, they are entitled to the money no matter how many people need it. AFDC has no time limits on benefits. ?.2%B'-%<''-%5,6.7.0M%Q'2,8% I07B,-0%^0B'-6%!TT;% <^I_^?%(-0,30M%Q?[5%3'%-0P7,(0%?5O>% `7'(K%/-,13% +:M3%E'-K%E#.1%3E'%80,-M%'B%-0(0.P3%SM./1.\(,13%A7'E% 3'%A-0,2E.110-#4'606,K0-%.20'7'/8X% >,:M02%6,MM.F0%-02:(R'1%.1%E07B,-0%-'70M=%.1(-0,M0%.1% 7,A'-%B'-(0%P,-R(.P,R'1%'B%P''-%6'340-M=%/010-,778% M6,77%.1(-0,M0%.1%0,-1.1/M% V%80,-%7.B0R60%7.6.3%'1%,MM.M3,1(0% 9.6.3M%A0/.1%3'%3,K0%4'72%Y%-0(013%M3'PW/,P%0a301M.'1M% Replaces AFDC. TANF imposed a five year lifetime limit on welfare assistance. If a person with a dependent child falls in hard times, the government will write a check for five years but that is it. Any recipient must work for pay within two years of welfare reciept. Breadwinnerhomemaker model is finally dead. Caused massive reduction in welfare roles. TANF is not an entitlement. TANF passed by Democrats. Block grant is not given to people when state runs out of money, but that's never happened. "% !"#$#!!% ?5O>#Q?[5%^0(.P.013%5,6.7.0M%!T;!W"))$% 1970s is the recession of the oil shock, blue collar sector, and changes that made AFDC more generous. Early 1990s, crazy increase of welfare roles. Once welfare passes, the roles drop dramatically within the next five years. Did it make the lives of the poor better? Doesn't look like it. 4bP*##,MP0C44MC/'F#4MP#.12.(,3'-M)c#,P,CM4367de,1B"% @'E%9,-/0%.M%340%?F0-,/0%JI07B,-0L%>40(Kf% 4bP*##,MP0C44MC/'F#4MP#.12.(,3'-M)c#,P,CM4367de,1B"% U% !"#$#!!% Works as a tax credit, so if you're working but don't make a lot of money, you get taxes back. Program for the working poor. If you work enough to make decent money, then you get more money. Popular with conservatives (strong work incentives). Popular with liberals because it is the most income passing program to help the poor. In order to get the EITC, a person must have taxable earnings in a given year. The more one makes, the greater the amount of money they get back. Most expensive program, but also the most effective. Various policies give us inconsistent incentives. No marriage tax penalty in place currently. Tax code rewards couples where one earns significantly more than the other. More people got a positive penalty than a negative penalty. If a women makes the same as her husband they have to pay more. Penalty is more likely to be paid by low earning couples than high. Financial disincentive for unpar, dual earning couples. TANF continues to be paid by single mothers, EITC is for families with children. D,-102%h1('60%Q,a%>-02.3%SDhQ>X% D,-102%.1('60%3,a%(-02.3%SDhQ>X% h13-'2:(02%.1%!T$V=%6'2.\02%7,30-% h1('60%M:AM.28%B'-%7'E%0,-10-M=%0MP0(.,778%34'M0%E.34% (4.72-01% >7,.6,13%6:M3%E'-K%3'%-0(0.F0%DhQ>%SJE'-K.1/%P''-LX% O0P012M%'1%0,-102%.1('60% ['%.1('60%Zi%j0-'%DhQ>% `010\3M%.1(-0,M0%E.34%0,-1.1/M%:P%3'%,%P'.13%S(,%kVK%B'-%B,6.78% 'B%g%0,-1.1/%!"W!;K% 5,j0%':3%,3%4./40-%.1('60M% 9,-/0M3%P-'/-,6%B'-%P''-%B,6.7.0M=%A.//0-%34,1%Q?[5% >-02.302%E.34%7.e.1/%'F0-%U)%6.77.'1%B,6.7.0M%':3%'B%P'F0-38% ?.2%B'-%<''-%5,6.7.0M%Q'2,8% ['R(0%.1('1M.M3013%.1(01RF0M% Q,a%('20%-0E,-2M%A-0,2E.110-%4'606,K0-%6'207% &'W(,7702%J6,--.,/0%P01,738L%.1%3,a%('20%.1(-0,M0M%3,a%A.77%B'-% (':P70M%E40-0%MP':M0M%0,-1%M.6.7,-%.1('60=%A:3%-0E,-2M%34'M0%.1% E4.(4%'10%MP':M0%0,-1M%M./1.\(,1378%6'-0%34,1%340%'340-% h1%P-,(R(0*%P01,7.j0M%7'EW0,-1.1/%2:,7W0,-10-%(':P70Ml% 2.M(':-,/0M%B06,70%95<%,3%,77%70F07M% ['30*%>'1/-0MM%M:MP01202%JP01,738L%"))!W")!"% <^I_^?%H%DhQ>%01(':-,/0%7,A'-%B'-(0%P,-R(.P,R'1% h1%P-,(R(0*%6'M378%,m0(3M%M.1/70%6'340-M%E.34%(4.72-01% _10%P'7.(8%20%B,(3'%01(':-,/0M=%340%'340-%2.M(':-,/0M% B06,70#6'340-nM%7,A'-%B'-(0%P,-R(.P,R'1% g% !"#$#!!% Two basic justifications why the government intervenes in the private matter of the family. 1. There are benefits to getting married and having kids (transfers take place). Should government support marriage or individual people in marriage? `./%o:0MR'1M% I4,3%B,6.78%B'-6M%M4':72%340%/'F0-16013% 01(':-,/0f% +,--.,/0%.20,7%FM%.120P01201(0% I4,3%/0120-%-'70M%M4':72%340%/'F0-16013% 01(':-,/0% 506,70%7,A'-%B'-(0%P,-R(.P,R'1%FM%A-0,2E.110-# 4'606,K0-%,12%B:77WR60%6'340-4''2% Important trends: age of marriage increased dramatically since the 1960s, meaning of mariage has changed, remarriage rates have increased, divorce has become easier (high divorce rates now). Cohabitation: has become the norm, premarital cohabitation are on the rise. Fertility: culture shift that it's no longer expected to be married before having a kid. Since the baby boom, the fertility rate has deceased, but now it's back to where it was before the boom. Postponement of fertility. 5,6.78%>4,1/0%.1%340%N1.302%&3,30M% Q40%N1.302%&3,30M%4,M%0aP0-.01(02%6,MM.F0% B,6.78%(4,1/0%'F0-%340%P,M3%B0E%20(,20M% 903nM%7.M3%340%M'60%.6P'-3,13%3-012%.1p% +,--.,/0#2.F'-(0#-06,--.,/0% >'4,A.3,R'1% 50-R7.38#6,-.3,7%M3,3:M%,3%A.-34% q0120-%-'70M% V% !"#$#!!% 5,6.78%>4,1/0%?A-',2% `:3%E0%,-0%1'3%,7'10r% O0MP.30%M'60%.6P'-3,13%2.m0-01(0M%SM00%8':-% -0]:.-02%>40-7.1%-0,2.1/MX=%M.6.7,-%(4,1/0M%,M% .1%340%NC&C%4,F0%'((:--02%S.1%34.M%'-20-X%.1*% ['-340-1%H%I0M30-1%D:-'P0% &':340-1%D:-'P0% <'M3W('66:1.M3%>013-,7%H%D,M30-1%D:-'P0% +'M3W20F07'P02#20F07'P.1/%?M.,% J&0('12%O06'/-,P4.(%Q-,1M.R'1L% Age of marriage is rising everywhere. Increasing pre/ post marital cohabitation. Two demographers predicted something about the future, and were right. &E00P.1/%E'-72E.20%(4,1/0M%.1%B,6.78%A04,F.'-M% ,12%.20,7M% ^.M.1/%,/0%,3%6,--.,/0% h1(-0,M02#4./4%2.F'-(0%-,30M% h1(-0,M.1/%P-0#P'M3%6,-.3,7%('4,A.3,R'1% O0(7.10%'B%-06,--.,/0% q0120-%0]:,7.38% h12.F.2:,7.j02%6,--.,/0% O0(':P7.1/%'B%6,--.,/0%,12%P-'(-0,R'1% h1(-0,M.1/%0a3-,6,-.3,7%A.-34M% % O.M('F0-02%A8%90M3,0/40%,12%F,1%20%s,,%S!Tc;X%^06,-K,A78%('6P70a%,12%,((:-,30%P-02.(R'1r% O0(7.1.1/%B0-R7.38% &:M3,.102%M:AW-0P7,(06013%B0-R7.38% ;% !"#$#!!% Da,6P70*%% 50-R7.38%<'M3P'106013#O0(7.10% Da,6P70*%Da3-,6,-.3,7%A.-34M% In a half century, almost every country has shifted from a system that doesn't allow for extramarital births to extramarital births becoming the norm. NC&C*%tg)u=%,12%-.M.1/% $% !"#$#!!% I40-0%2'0M%.3%('60%B-'6f% >:73:-,7%P-0B0-01(0%2-.e%S+,M7'E%!TVgX% I0,734.0-%,12%6'-0%02:(,302%P'P:7,R'1M% ['%7'1/0-%P-0'((:P.02%E.34%M:-F.F,7=%M0(:-.38=%,:34'-.38% SJ6,30-.,7.M3LX% D6P4,M.j0%1002M%'B%M07BW0aP-0MM.'1=%06,1(.P,R'1=% ,:3'1'68=%-0('/1.R'1=%/-,MM-''3M%P,-R(.P,R'1%SJP'M3W 6,30-.,7.M3L%vh1/074,-3%!T$)wX% Da,6P70*%?/0%,3%5.-M3%`.-34%,12% <'M36,30-.,7.M6% Measure materialism: almost align in straight line. More concern of self expression the higher end. c% !"#$#!!% Kids are no longer a means of economic necessity. View contraception in a different framework. Use it now to not have kids in the first place. US is late in the second demographic transition. Nation that prides itself on individualism. Creates a new model for living the most private decisions in srong correlation with the world that's surrounding us. 9'1/W^:1%h6P7.(,R'1M% O.F0-M.\(,R'1%'B%7.F.1/%,--,1/06013M% O0(7.10%'B%6,--.,/0%,M%0a(7:M.F0%.20,7% >'4,A.3,R'1=%7.F.1/W,P,-3W3'/0340-=%.1R6,30%B-.012M4.PM% &:AW-0P7,(06013%B0-R7.38% >4.72-01%B'-%P,-013,7%M07BW0aP-0MM.'1% >'13-,(0PR'1%3'%207,8%,12%,F'.2=%-,340-%34,1%(,P=%B0-R7.38% 9,30-%,12%B0E0-%A.-34M% &4-.1K.1/%P'P:7,R'1M=%.1(-0,M02%-07.,1(0%'1%6./-,R'1% NC&C%.M%7,30W('60-%3'%M0('12%206'/-,P4.(% 3-,1M.R'1=%% `:3%7''KM%7.K0%.3nM%(,3(4.1/%:P% T% ...
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