BIS2C_Lect33_Ward_Echinodermata_ppt

BIS2C_Lect33_Ward_Ec - 1 BIS2C Winter 2012(Ward Lecture 33 Echinodermata Today’s lecture(14 March • Arthropoda(Hexapoda concluded •

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Unformatted text preview: 1 BIS2C Winter 2012 (Ward) Lecture 33. Echinodermata Today’s lecture (14 March) • Arthropoda (Hexapoda): concluded • introduction to Deuterostomes • Echinodermata • major features of echinoderms • echinoderm diversity Friday • Chordates, Part 1 BIS2C Winter 2012 Review Session (Tuesday, 20 March) • 1:00 pm – 3:00 pm • 123 Sci Lec Posted on Smart Site (under Resources/Exam Study Guides): • Final Exam Study Guides (Metazoans; Microbes/Plants/Fungi) Other trends in insect evolution Coevolution with flowering plants Insect orders (major clades) arose in Permian (260 mya) or earlier Angiosperms originated about 150 mya Thus, coevolution with flowering plants had an effect on diversification within insect orders, not on the origin of major clades Other trends in insect evolution Coevolution with flowering plants Recall the method of multiple sister-group comparisons for testing effects of different factors on rates of diversification . For example, latex- and resin-bearing plants have more species on average than sister taxa without these features species, on average, than sister taxa without these features. Similarly, clades of phytophagous (plant-feeding) insects have been compared to sister taxa that are not plant feeders. Guess which ones show higher net diversification? Other trends in insect evolution Coevolution with flowering plants On average, plant-feeding insects are more species-rich than sister taxa that do not feed on plants (predators or scavengers). Clicker Question 1 On average, plant-feeding insects are more species-rich than sister taxa that do not feed on plants (predators or scavengers). What are likely explanations for this pattern? a. Predators and scavengers have lower extinction rates. b. Clades of plant-feeding species tend to be older than their non-plant-feeding sister groups. c. Plant-feeding insects have fewer natural enemies. d. Plant-feeding insects can specialize more than predators and scavengers. 2 Other trends in insect evolution Social insects Eusocial insects live in colonies with division of labor : some individuals reproduce (queen, male), but most individuals belong to a non-reproductive worker caste . Other trends in insect evolution Social insects Eusocial insects live in colonies with division of labor : some individuals reproduce (queen, male), but most individuals belong to a non-reproductive worker caste . Major eusocial insects are (1) termites, (2) ants, (3) some bees and (4) some wasps....
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BIS2C_Lect33_Ward_Ec - 1 BIS2C Winter 2012(Ward Lecture 33 Echinodermata Today’s lecture(14 March • Arthropoda(Hexapoda concluded •

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