Bis2C+lect+9+Rizzo+prokaryote+diversity

Bis2C+lect+9+Rizzo+prokaryote+diversity - Lecture 8:...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 8: Prokaryote biology Lecture 9: Prokaryote diversity Lecture 10: Quiz 2 and viruses Bacteria (/bktri/ ; singular : bacterium ) are a large group of single-celled, prokaryote microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, water, and deep in the Earth's crust, as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals. There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water; in all, there are approximately five nonillion (510 30 ) bacteria on Earth, forming much of the world's biomass. Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients, with many steps in nutrient cycles depending on these organisms, such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere and putrefaction. However, most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the phyla of bacteria have species that can be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology. From Wikipedia Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998. 95: 65786583. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998. 95: 65786583. Microbes run global cycles Carbon Nitrogen Sulfur Phosphorus Cations Calcium Potassium Magnesium Manganese Extremophiles Uses of extremophiles Thermus aquaticus taq polymerase How to study microbes Some questions many people ask about microbes found in various places: Who are they? (i.e., what kinds of microbes are they) What are they doing? (i.e., what functions and processes do they possess) The principles here apply to bacteria, archaea and eukaryotic microbes Method 1: Observe in the Field Who are they? Can look at organisms in a microscope What are they doing? Can take measurements in the field CO 2 uptake decomposition rates Can observe changes over time or in response to perturbations Many other possibilities ......
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Bis2C+lect+9+Rizzo+prokaryote+diversity - Lecture 8:...

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