Lecture+5+W2012

Lecture+5+W2012 - 1 BIS 002C BIODIVERSITY AND THE TREE OF...

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BIS 002C BIODIVERSITY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Lecture 5: The Tree of Life and the Three Domains
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Diversity of life
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www.mblwhoilibrary.org Plantae Pro2sta Animalia Ernst Haeckel 1866
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Monera Pro2sta Plantae Fungi Animalia Whittaker – Five Kingdoms 1969
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OUTLINE for Lecture 5 Lecture 7 Outline A: The First Full Tree of Life • B: Rooting the Tree of Life
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• How many times has life evolved on Earth? – Do all organisms trace their origin to a single common ancestor? – How many “trees of life” are there? • What are the major branches on the tree(s) of life? – How many major groupings are there? – What were the early “events” in the evolutionary history of species? • Rooting the tree(s) of life – The Outgroup problem – The solution
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a b c d e h g f The default class tree If this tree included all major groups of organisms … CLICKER QUESTION coming up!!!
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a b c d e h g f The default class tree If this tree included all major groups of organisms … What does this imply about the # of 2mes life evolved? a. Cannot tell from this b. One Origin c. Two Origins
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a b c d e h g f Common ancestry of all life MRCA This implies a single origin of life, some2me before MRCA
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a b c d e h g f Common ancestry of all life MRCA And thus that there is one “Tree of Life” This implies a single origin of life, some2me before MRCA
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a b c d e h g f But Is there a theore2cal reason why living organisms could not have mul2ple separate ancestries? Origin 1 Origin ±
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How many trees of life? • How do we distinguish two hypotheses? 1. a single origin (and thus a single tree of life) 2. multiple origins (and thus multiple separate trees)? • What data might support one hypothesis versus the other?
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Universal homologies • Characters that are found in the same state an all organisms are considered universal ” (remember “
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Lecture+5+W2012 - 1 BIS 002C BIODIVERSITY AND THE TREE OF...

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