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07-Food+Science+_+Law - The Formation of USDA The...

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1 The government and food ± laws, regulations & biotechnology ² FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS helping to build a world without hunger The Formation of USDA The United States had a largely agrarian economy early in its history . In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln founded the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Lincoln called it the "people's department". President Lincoln appointed a chemist to lead the Bureau of Chemistry, the true predecessor of the Food and Drug Administration. Agriculture Colleges Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act The purpose of the land-grant colleges was to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life. Morrill Act was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on July 2 , 1862 . 106 Land-Grant institutions U.S. Agricultural and Food Research A second Morrill Act in 1890 was also aimed at the former Confederate states. This act required each state to show that race was not an admissions criterion, or else to designate a separate land-grant institution for persons of color. in 1887, Congress also funded agricultural experiment stations and various categories of agricultural and veterinary research "under direction of" the land-grant universities. The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 started federal funding of cooperative extension , with the land-grant universities' agents being sent to virtually every county of every state. The President has proposed $1.035 billion for fiscal year 2008.
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2 First Transcontinental Railroad linking the railway network of the Eastern United States with California on the Pacific coast. Ceremonially completed 1869 at Promontory Summit, Utah , it created a nation-wide mechanized transportation network that revolutionized the population and economy of the American West . The Growing Meat Packing Industry • The expanding railroads provided transportation for livestock to markets where they were slaughtered. • In the 1870s, refrigerator cars were introduced and later the development of electricity allowed meat processing to become a year-round business. food laws became necessary as vast numbers of rural residents moved to large cities and could no longer grow their own food or have direct contact with the farmers who were raising crops and livestock. As the population became more urbanized, processed foods came to substitute for fresh produce in the U.S. diet. "The use of processed food then was even greater than it is today," Toward the end of the 19th century One of our first A food law that was eventually introduced in Congress in 1881 was based on an 1875 British food law. It would not have gained much support without the efforts of Harvey W. Wiley, a chemist and physician who then headed the Division of Chemistry in the Agriculture Department.
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