2CDC Antibotic Stewardship InitiativeIntroduction that identifies your advanced practice role and your view of how that role willbe able to impact the antibiotic resistance dilemmaAntibiotic resistant infections have become a global threat and health care services must engage all relevant healthcare workers. Whether it be nurse educators, leaders, or nurse practitioners. Antibiotics have saved millions of lives from bacterial infections; however, the antibiotic resistant crisis has occurred due to the overuse and misuse of antibiotics (Problems and Dilemmas of Antimicrobial Resistance - Pubmed, n.d.). As well as the lack of new drug development by the pharmaceutical industry (Colman et al., 2019). Antibiotics have not only saved many lives, but they have played a huge role in major advances of medicine and surgery. “They have successfully prevented or treated infections that can occur in patients who are receiving chemotherapy treatments; who have chronic disease such as diabetes, end-stage renal disease, or rheumatic arthritis; or who have had complex surgeries” (Leibovici et al., 2011, p. 14). As a nurse practitioner, the two main causes of antibiotic overuse that can be managed areoveruse and inappropriate prescribing. Epidemiological studies have shown that with the increased consumption of antibiotics comes increased resistance (Leibovici et al., 2011) . Resistance can occur from overuse, genetics, or spontaneous mutation (Problems and Dilemmas of Antimicrobial Resistance - PubMed, n.d.). With the increasing amount of antibiotics that are being prescribed in the United States, it will take a lot of work to be able to reduce the use of antibiotics throughout the nation. In 2010, an analysis showed that about 22 units (a unit is equal to one pill, capsule, or ampoule) of antibiotics was being prescribed per person in the United States (Resistant Organisms: A Dilemma for Primary Care,n.d.). In the United States, it is
3required to have a script to get a dose of antibiotic, but in other countries antibiotics can be purchased over the counter, meaning that it is easily accessible, plentiful, and cheap, which promotes overuse of the medication (Colman et al., 2019). Inappropriately prescribing medications can lead to an increased resistant to bacteria as well. Studies have shown that in almost thirty to fifty cases the antibiotic indication, duration, or dose is incorrect and about thirty to sixty percent of antibiotics prescribed in the intensive care unit have been found to be unnecessary, inappropriate, or suboptimal (Murray, 1991). Antibioticsare commonly being prescribed for viral infections such as respiratory conditions, common colds, sinus and ear infections – which normally do not react to antibiotics (Ramachandran et al.,2019). As a family nurse practitioner, it would be vital to make sure that antibiotics are being prescribed for the right patient and right diagnosis to help fight the antibiotic resistance dilemma in the world.