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Unformatted text preview: SPS 1. Hafta Anfi 1-2 The term “enlightment” is used roughly to describe the social and cultural changes in the western europe in the 18th century. This period of european history was started by a small group of intellectual philosophers like Diderot, Volter.This was a group acting in a unified lifestyle: All living in Paris, interacting with each other frequently. With these interactions, they were able to come up with a project called “encyclopedia” , which actually is a massive amount of writings put together by Diderot. These are essays, articles, definitions on politics, religion, manners, food, other cultures etc. This work is almost 3000 pages of different opinions, but there are certain things these intellectuals had in common, though. -they were all materialistic. Their common view was to believe that everything happens in their own momentum.-The facts that you can observe are the only reliable ones. Do not learn from the books or someone else’s experience. Facts give you the specific information.-Rejected the authority of the church. These people developed a critical attitude against the churchs’ unquestioned power. The idea of enlightment can roughly be described like a light being turned on in a dark room. For all the people involved in the enlightement , “progress” is a key term, they are strong believers of progress in technology and morality. The idea is that, if you know yourself and the enviroment you can have a better life for yourself. You should always follow “your” understanding of the things. Two terms are very significant : Equality of freedom and human rights. These thoughts discussed in intellectual enviroment are not told in the same way. These intellectuals express these thoughts in public places like coffee or tea shops, book stores with the hand-outs they make. This lively, moving enviroment made the shop owners benefit from the new flow and a group with expensive tastes emerged. Some people became more aware of the other cultures. One of the most important representatives of the intellectuals was Denis Diderot. He was born in a small family as the son of a poor manifacturer. He became one of the most important minds in history, but yet still,their wievs were not so original. What they did was the new interpretation of the ideas of old thinkers like John Locke, Hobbes etc. “The modern natural law” that was essential for the enlightment was actually rooted to the 17th century. The idea of the law is basically making an obseration of human physcology, creating common wievs and needs, and then developing a standart of human nature. And the idea claims that a good goverment should interest in these needs.According to Aristo, there are people who were simply less intelligent, people who were just born to be led....
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This note was uploaded on 03/16/2012 for the course FENS 101 taught by Professor Selçukerdem during the Fall '12 term at Sabancı University.
- Fall '12