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Unformatted text preview: T H E E N L I G H T E N M E N T The Outline of the First Weeks Topic: A. INTRODUCTION: 1. What was the Enlightenment? 1 A characteristic bundle of ideas An intellectual movement A communicating group of network of intellectuals A set of intellectual centers where intellectuals clustered: Paris, Edinburg, Glasgow, London, etc. A publishing industry and its audience An intellectual fashion A belief system, word view, or Zeitgeist A history and Geography Basic ideas that the philosophers agree on 2 : Rationalism- Reason Empiricism The Idea of Progress Universalism Uniformity of Human Nature Individualism Toleration Freedom Secularism 2. The Location of the Enlightenment Social L.- social background of the philosophers Historical L. the Eighteenth century, background in the Renaissance and the Scientific Rev. Geographical L. :- The French Enlightenment Voltaire (1694-1778): An exponent of toleration and of the rights of man. A crusader against the Church. A champion of the bourgeoisie and the Enlightened despotism. Most widely read and influential writer of his time. Montesquieu (1689-1755) French political philosopher. In his masterpiece De lesprit des lois (The Spirit of Laws- 1748) he questioned the relation between historical and natural environments and...
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- Fall '12
- Critique of Pure Reason