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Unformatted text preview: T H E E N L I G H T E N M E N T The Outline of the First Week’s Topic: A. INTRODUCTION: 1. What was the Enlightenment? 1 • A characteristic bundle of ideas • An intellectual movement • A communicating group of network of intellectuals • A set of intellectual centers where intellectuals clustered: Paris, Edinburg, Glasgow, London, etc. • A publishing industry and its audience • An intellectual fashion • A belief system, word view, or Zeitgeist • A history and Geography Basic ideas that the philosophers agree on 2 : • Rationalism- Reason • Empiricism • The Idea of Progress • Universalism – Uniformity of Human Nature • Individualism • Toleration • Freedom • Secularism 2. The Location of the Enlightenment • Social L.- social background of the philosophers • Historical L. – the Eighteenth century, background in the Renaissance and the Scientific Rev. • Geographical L. :- The French Enlightenment • Voltaire (1694-1778): An exponent of toleration and of the rights of man. A crusader against the Church. A champion of the bourgeoisie and the Enlightened despotism. Most widely read and influential writer of his time. • Montesquieu (1689-1755) French political philosopher. In his masterpiece De l’esprit des lois (The Spirit of Laws- 1748) he questioned the relation between historical and natural environments and...
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This note was uploaded on 03/16/2012 for the course FENS 101 taught by Professor Selçukerdem during the Fall '12 term at Sabancı University.
- Fall '12
- Critique of Pure Reason