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The Rise of the Modern State 2

The Rise of the Modern State 2 - T H E D E V E L O P M E N...

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T H E D E V E L O P M E N T O F T H E M O D E R N S T A T E II The Outline of the Third Week’s Topic: A. Introduction: The concept of “sovereignty”, secularism and the modern state Theories of “sovereignty” as the theories of “rightful exercise of political power”/ the legitimate state. Normative political theories/ philosophy versus descriptive-analytical theories of social sciences B. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Leviathan , written in 1649-50 , published in 1651→ The English Civil War, begin in 1642, Revolution in 1648, the execution of Charles I in 1649 ; 1649-53 Rump Parliament, 1653-58 Cromwell’s Protectorate Leviathan→ argues for the necessity of all powerful sovereign for “peaceful and commodious” social order Human nature vis-à-vis the State of Nature in Leviathan The origins of social strife and of moral laws Compatibility of the Laws of Nature ( Lex Naturalis ) with the Rights of Nature in Hobbesian State of Nature→ the necessity of the state The origins of the state: a) Commonwealth by acquisition b) Commonwealth by institution Secular ethics and politics in Hobbes’s Leviathan Liberalism in Hobbes : a) Explanation of the existence of society and the state by reference to ‘free’ and ‘equal’ individuals b) Concern to reveal best circumstances for human nature, which is prescribed as self-interested, selfish, egoistic c) Emphasizes the importance of consent in the making of the legitimate state and social order. d) the idea of representation. Illiberal aspects of Hobbes’s theory: a) Argument of the necessity of all-powerful state to create laws and secure conditions social and political life.
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