BKCHAP07-2011 - 7-1 Part III Solar Energy Systems This part...

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Unformatted text preview: 7-1 Part III Solar Energy Systems This part of the book deals with the use of solar energy either in a photovoltaic system or a solar thermal system. Photovoltaic cells produce direct current (dc) electricity which can be used for stand-alone grid-connected applications after the necessary conversion to alternating current (ac). There are also many dedicated applications of dc photovoltaic electricity, namely water pumping, cathodic protection, remote lighting and refrigeration, and telecommunication systems. Solar thermal systems, on the other hand, produce heat energy in thermal collectors which can be used directly, or converted to electricity for end-use. Some of the major applications of solar thermal energy are to produce hot water and industrial process heat. The process heat can be converted into electricity using the conventional electromechanical energy conversion systems. All of these topics including the characteristics of cells and modules are discussed in this part. There are three chapters in this part of the book. 7. Solar Resource 8. Solar Thermal Systems 9. Photovoltaic Systems In the seventh chapter we try to understand how the solar resource varies with time and location, and under different sky conditions. The next chapter is on solar thermal systems where we discuss solar collectors, water heating and energy conversion systems, and the production of electrical energy. This is followed by a chapter on photovoltaic systems where discussions on both stand-alone and grid-connected systems, and the production of electrical energy are presented. This chapter also includes a discussion on basic device properties, and various types of solar cells. 7-2 Figure 7a. The Earth in its yearly traverse around the sun 7-3 Figure 7b. Solar Angles 7-4 Chapter 7 SOLAR RESOURCE 7.1 Introduction The most commonly used term for solar radiation is the global horizontal radiation or insolation. This represents the rate at which the solar energy reaches the surface of the earth. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the necessary background information, equations, and empirical relationships for calculating the horizontal flat plate and plane-of-array global insolations under standard "clear sky" conditions at any time and at any location on earth. Plane-of-array insolation implies the solar radiation received on the plane of the solar collector. Site elevation, latitude, longitude, julian date, altitude and some location dependent atmospheric parameters are used for this purpose. This insolation level thus generally determines the upper limit of the possible radiation at the site. This value can be adjusted on the basis of climatic conditions (e.g., occurrences of hazy sky, dust storms, cloud cover and rainfall) prevailing in the area....
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This note was uploaded on 03/16/2012 for the course ECE 5374G taught by Professor Srahman during the Spring '12 term at Virginia Tech.

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BKCHAP07-2011 - 7-1 Part III Solar Energy Systems This part...

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