BKCHAP06-2011 - 1 Chapter 6 LARGE SCALE APPLICATIONS 6.1...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 6 LARGE SCALE APPLICATIONS 6.1 Introduction Once we get a fairly good idea about the available wind resource, and the equipment that can be used to harness that resource, we can begin to understand the potential for large scale applications of the Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). Figure 6.2 illustrates the growth of installed wind turbine capacity in the United States over a 14-year period from 1997 to 2010. The wind turbine capacity increased from 1611 MW in 1997 to 40200 MW at the end of 2010 (Earthpolicy, for data up to 2009). Figure 6.1 shows the existing wind power capacity by state in the U.S. at the end of September 2010. Texas, Iowa and California are the top-three states that had the largest wind power capacity of 9727 MW, 3670 MW and 2739 MW, respectively (AWEA, 2010). The installed wind power capacity in Texas of 9727 MW denotes 37% increase from its 2008 level when 2,611 MW of wind capacity was recorded (AWEA, 2010). In 2009, the total wind turbine capacity of 9410 MW amounted to 8.4 percent of the states total electricity generation capacity of 111848 MW. Wind energy has also made important contributions to the overall electricity generation in Texas. In 2010 wind energy was responsible for 1841 MWh of electricity generation in Texas, which was equivalent to 6 percent of the total electricity generation in the state (EIA, 2010). At the end of 2009, the total worldwide cumulative installed wind turbine capacity was 158505 MW. U.S. had the highest installed wind turbine capacity of 35064 MW, followed by China (25805 MW), Germany (25777), Spain (19149 MW), India (10926 MW), Italy (4850 MW) and France (4492 MW) (Earth Policy, 2009). See Figure 6.3. According to EIA (2010), U.S. wind power generation increased from 10354 GWh in 2002 to 73886 GWh in 2009, representing 0.268 percent and 1.87 percent of total electricity generation in the U.S., respectively. See Figure 6.4 and Table 6.1. The equipment reliability went up significantly from less than 60 percent in 1981-82 to more than 95 percent in 2008. The wind energy costs dropped from about 25 cents (per kWh of electricity) in 1981 to 3.6 to 10.7 cents in 2009 (IEA, 2009). In 2003-2004 capital costs for wind energy projects were in the range of $1000-$1300/kW. In 2008, the estimated capital costs of new wind energy projects were in the range of $1200-$2700/kW (FERC, 2008). 2 Sources: Earth Policy, 2009: www.earthpolicy.org EIA, 2010: http://www.eia.doe.gov/ AWEA, 2009: http://archive.awea.org/projects/ FERC, 2008: http://www.ferc.gov/legal/staff-reports/06-19-08-cost-electric.pdf IEA, 2009: http://www.iea.org/ Figure 6.1 Existing Wind Power Capacity (as of 09/30/2010) Source: http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/ http://archive.awea.org/projects/default.aspx 3 Figure 6.2 U.S. Cumulative Installed Wind Turbine Capacity (1997-2010) Source: www.earthpolicy.org (for 1997-2009) Figure 6.3 Worldwide Cumulative Installed Wind Turbine Capacity (End of 2009) Source: http://www.earth-policy.org/data_center/C23 Production Tax Credit Lapses 4...
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BKCHAP06-2011 - 1 Chapter 6 LARGE SCALE APPLICATIONS 6.1...

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