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lec3 - Introduction to Psychology I Biological Biological...

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Introduction to Psychology I Biological Bases of Behavior Dr. Jamal Mansour [email protected] Fall 2010
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The Nervous System Fall 2010
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Structure of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal cord Glial cells Peripheral Nervous System Remaining nerves Neurons Motor Sensory Interneurons Fall 2010
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Brain Cells Glial Cells Provide structural support, insulation, and protection for neurons Information processing Neurons Receive information Integrate information Transmit information Fall 2010
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Types of Neurons Motor neurons Transmit messages to the muscles that move the body Sensory neurons Receive information from outside the nervous system Interneurons Receive information from other neurons In brain and spinal cord Interneuron Fall 2010
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Anatomy of the Nervous System Contains cell nucleus and provides chemical support of cell cell body (soma) Fall 2010
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Anatomy of the Nervous System Branch-like parts of the neuron that receive information dendrites Fall 2010
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Anatomy of the Nervous System Long thin fibers that transmit signals away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles or glands axons Fall 2010
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Anatomy of the Nervous System Insulating material (made of glial cells) that encases some neurons myelin sheath Fall 2010
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Anatomy of the Nervous System Signals “jump” from node to node Nodes of Ranvier Fall 2010
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Anatomy of the Nervous System Small knobs at the end of the axon that secrete neurotransmitters terminal buttons Fall 2010
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Anatomy of the Nervous System terminal buttons Fall 2010
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Anatomy of the Nervous System Junction where neurons interact with one another synapse Fall 2010
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Anatomy of the Nervous System synapse Fall 2010
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Electron Micrograph of a Synapse Fall 2010
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from brain ~.01cm from spinal cord (~1 m) dendrites Varieties of Neurons cell bodies axons Fall 2010
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Transmission of Neural Signals Resting potential stable, negative charge in the inactive cell of about -70mv Fall 2010
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Depolarization Sodium channels open when neurotransmitters arrive from other neurons and change the negativity of the neuron Process during which positively charged sodium (Na+) ions flow into the axon making it less negatively charged Depolarization Fall 2010
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Action Potential Brief change in a neuron’s electrical charge Action potentials cause neural impulses i.e., electric current that flows along the axon as a result of an action potential Wave-like propagation Fall 2010
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Neural Impulses Fall 2010
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