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Lect2 - Introduction to Psychology I The Science of...

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Introduction to Psychology I: The Science of Psychology Jamal K. Mansour [email protected]
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The Scientific Approach Empiricism Premise that knowledge is acquired through observation Scientific approach Derived from empiricism Assumes that events are governed by some form of lawful order Not the search for “truth”
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Goals of the Scientific Method Description and measurement self-report measures, reports by others, behavioural observations, physiological measures Understanding and prediction Variable: any measurable condition, event, characteristic, or behaviourcontrolled, manipulated, or observed in a study Application and control
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Steps in Scientific Investigation: Formulate hypothesis Hypothesis A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables It is a prediction of the answer to your research question Research question What it is you want to find out about with your investigation
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Steps in Scientific Investigation: Formulate hypothesis A hypothesis should be TESTABLE Operational definition a definition that describes the actions or operations that will be made to measure or control a variable
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Steps in Scientific Investigation: Select Research Method & Design Study Experiment Case study Naturalistic observation Survey
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Steps in Scientific Investigation: Conduct Study, Analysethe Data & Draw Conclusions Recruiting and observing participants Recoding data for analysis Conducting descriptive and/or inferential statistics Interpreting the results Is the hypothesis supported?
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Steps in Scientific Investigation: Report Findings of Research Typically through Publication in a scientific journal Presentation at a scientific conference Advances science through Disseminating knowledge Stimulating new questions Evaluation of research
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Advantages of the Scientific Approach Clarity and Precision Relatively Error Free Skepticism Methods, data, and interpretation published
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Research Methods Random Assignment? Control group Yes No Experiment or multiple measures? Quasi- experiment Non- experiment Yes No
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Experiments Experiment Research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether or not changes occur in the other variable Independent variable Condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to assess its impact on another variable Dependent variable Variable that is believed to be affected by the manipulation of the independent variable
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The BoboDoll Experiment Interested in how watching aggression influenced children’s aggressive behaviors IV = whether the child saw an adult behave aggressively or non-aggressively towards a Bobodoll DV = ratings of child’s aggression towards the Bobodoll (by the experimenter and a nursery school teacher) http://psychclassics.asu.edu/Bandura/bobo.htm
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Test Groups
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