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0521850428c01_p01-37 - 0521850428pre.qxd 15/12/05 3:36 PM...

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THERMODYNAMICS Concepts and Applications
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BEGINNINGS CHAPTER ONE
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definitions of thermodynamic properties, states, processes, and cycles. Understand the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium and its requirement of simultaneously satisfying thermal, mechanical, phase, and chemical equilibria. Be able to explain the meaning of a quasi-equilibrium process. Understand the distinction between primary dimensions and derived dimensions, and the distinction between dimensions and units. Be able to convert SI units of force, mass, energy, and power to U.S. customary units, and vice versa. After studying Chapter 1, you should: Have a basic idea of what thermodynamics is and the kinds of engineering problems to which it applies. Be able to distinguish between a system and a control volume. Be able to write and explain the generic forms of the basic conservation principles. Have an understanding of and be able to state the formal LEARNING OBJECTIVES
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IN THIS CHAPTER, we introduce the subject of thermodynamics. We also introduce three fairly complex, practical applications of our study of thermodynamics: the fossil-fueled steam power plant, jet engines, and the spark-ignition reciprocating engine. To set the stage for more detailed developments later in the book, several of the most important concepts and definitions are presented here: These include the concepts of thermodynamic systems and control volumes; the fundamental conservation principles; thermodynamic properties, states, and cycles; and equilibrium and quasi-equilibrium processes. The chapter concludes with some ideas of how you might optimize the use of this textbook based on your particular educational objectives. 1.1 WHAT IS THERMODYNAMICS? Thermodynamics is one of three disciplines collectively known as the thermal- fluid sciences, or sometimes, just the thermal sciences: thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics. Although the focus of our study in this book is thermodynamics, we touch on the other disciplines as necessary to provide a more thorough understanding of and context for thermodynamics. We begin with a dictionary definition [1] of thermodynamics: Thermodynamics is the science that deals with the relationship of heat and mechanical energy and conversion of one into the other. The Greek roots, therme , meaning heat, and dynamis , meaning power or strength, suggest a more elegant definition: the power of heat . In its common usage in engineering, thermodynamics has come to mean the broad study of energy and its various interconversions from one form to another. The following are but a few examples that motivate our study of thermodynamics. page 4 Examples of energy conversion systems: Fuel cells convert energy stored in chemical bonds to electricity to power a low-pollution bus (left); solar concentrators collect radiant energy from the sun (middle); wind turbines, Tehachapi, California produce electricity (right).
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