review_final - Physics 425 Spring 2009 Final Review I...

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1 Physics 425, Spring 2009 Final Review I. Introduction to Thermal and Statistical Physics: State of the System a. Understand what are particle systems and what are their microscopic and macroscopic properties. b. Must understand how macroscopic measurements can be done: the concept of equilibrium. c. Must understand the macroscopic state, microscopic states, and accessible microscopic states of a system. d. Must know the equilibrium postulate: a system in equilibrium is equally likely to stay in any of all the accessible micro-states. e. Must be able to calculate the number of states Φ or the state density Ω in some simple systems, such as an ideal gas, using the classical approach and uncertainty principle: " p x " x # h . h is the Plank constant h = 6.63e-34 J . s f. Must be able to draw phase space diagrams of these simple systems. g. Must understand that Ω is a function of macroscopic parameters, such as E, V, N, and increase rapidly with them. II. Thermodynamics II.1 First Law a. Must know the concepts of internal energy (E), work (W), heat (Q), degree of freedom (f), and equipartition theorem. b. Must know the first law of thermodynamics and be able to use it to calculate E, Q, or W, particularly work done by pressure, in given systems. c. Must understand and be able to tell what are exact and inexact differentials and their physical meaning. d. Know the concept of quasi-static evolution of a system. II.2 Second Law a. Must be able to derive the probabilities of some simple systems. b. Must know the multiplicative property of probability and the number of micro- sates ( Ω ), and be able to calculate the number of states of combined systems. c. Must understand what is the probability of a system staying in a certain macro- state. Must know how to use the maximum probability (or Ω and entropy S) argument to derive conditions for equilibrium between interacting systems (see Example 2 in II.2.1 for thermal interaction and Example 4 in II3.3 for mechanical interaction). Must be able to calculate energy distribution and number of states in final equilibrium (see Example 6 in II.2.2). d. Must know the definitions of entropy S=kln Ω and absolute temperature " S " E ) x # = 1 T . e. Know properties of absolute temperature. f. Must know international conventions of temperature scales and the conversion between different temperature scales. Must know the principles of thermometers.
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2 g. Must know what is a heat reservoir and be able to calculate the change of entropy or the number of states of a heat reservoir. h. Must know the expressions of the second law for an isolated system (Reif 3.11.3) and for a general system (Reif 3.11.4), and how to calculate the change of entropy in a system undergoing quasi-static evolution (see Examples 2-3 in II.3.2). i. Know of the third law, the limiting properties of entropy when the absolute temperature approaches zero.
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