exam 3 review final version

exam 3 review final version - Chapter 7 Motivation Concepts...

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Chapter 7 Motivation Concepts Motivation: process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal Hierarchy of needs: Abe Maslow’s hierarchy of 5 needs in which, as we need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant Self actualization : drive to become what we are capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving our potential and self fulfillment Esteem : internal factors such as self respect, autonomy, and achievement and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention Social : attention, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship Safety : security and protection from physical and emotional harm Physiological : includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs Lower-order of needs: needs that are satisfied external, such as physiological and safety needs Higher-order needs: needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem, and self actualization Theory X: assumption that employees are lazy, dislike work, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform Theory Y: assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self direction (assumes high-order needs dominate individuals) Two-Factor theory: theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. (Motivation hygiene theory) Hygiene factors: factors – such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary – that when adequate in a job make workers less angry McClelland’s theory of needs: theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation 1. Need for achievement (nAch): drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed 2. Need for power (nPow): need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise 3. Need for affiliation (nAff): desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships Self determination theory: theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation Self concordance: degree to which people’s reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values Cognitive Evaluation Theory : version of the SD-theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling Goal setting theory: theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance Management by objectives (MBO): program that encompasses specific goals, partipatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress Self efficacy (social cognitive/learning theory): individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task Four ways to increase 1. Enactive mastery
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exam 3 review final version - Chapter 7 Motivation Concepts...

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