POSC150 - The Constitution I The Split from England-Certain...

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The Constitution I The Split from England -Certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. -To secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their powers from the consent of the governed -Whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it. The Articles of Confederation, 1777 New system: a “firm league of friendship” among the states -Each state independent, made own decisions -Weak National government Collective Action problems: -No common voice on world stage -No common economic system -Shays’ rebellion, law and order breaks down The Constitutional Convention, 1787 1. Who is involved? 2. What is at stake for them? -Power and resources – Large states vs. small states—free states vs. slave states -How much power should new central government have? Compromise: federalism (power divided between independent central and regional governments). -How much power should each state have within government? Virginia Plan- Representation based on population NJ Plan- Every state gets same representation Compromise- 2 houses of congress, 1 for each plan—Senate (NJ) and House of Rep (VA). How do you count the population of each state? North- 16 senate, 57 Reps//South- 10 S, 47 Reps The Constitution II A System Separated by Powers Legislative- Makes Laws Executive- Carries out law Judicial- Interprets laws A System of Checked Powers Congress controls budget of President Congress confirms nominees for the Supreme Court President Vetoes Laws of Congress President nominates judges for Supreme Court SC can declare laws unconstitutional to Congress SC can declare presidential acts unconstitutional Campaigning to ratify the Constitution -Conventions in each stat discuss and vote -9 of 13 must vote yes Federalists Anti-Federalists -supported new constitution -opposed new constitution -Ambition and corruption inevitable -Ambition and corruption not so check ambitions people against not inevitable, as long as
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each other government is small and -Additional protections from local government unnecessary -Explicit protections from government necessary December 1787 3 ratified January 1788 5 February 1788 6 March 1788 6 April 1788 7 May 1788 8 June 1788 10 Amending the Constitution text book page 67 -Need broad approval from multiple institutions -May be proposed by either: 2/3 vote in both houses of congress OR a national convention called by congress at the request of 2/3 of the state legislatures -May be approved by either: legislatures in ¾ states OR ratifying conventions in ¾ states -Constitution amended 27 times (10 were Bill of Rights) -10,000 introduced in Congress The Bill of Rights I “No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the US; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty…. – 14 th Amendment Civil Liberties: freedoms from unfair government interference Civil Rights: ways government must make sire we are treated equally
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POSC150 - The Constitution I The Split from England-Certain...

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