What is bipolar disorder - What is bipolar disorder Bipolar...

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What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a mental illness caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain, causing extreme mood swings. These mood swings vary from severe depression to wild mania. A person with bipolar disorder may go from depression which manifests itself as sadness, hopelessness, or worthlessness, to mania which can present itself as talkativeness, high energy or elation. It is really the mood swings that are indicative to this disorder. It is believed that approximately 2 million people in the United States are affected by this disorder (Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed.). However, this figure is probably off, because many people with this disorder go undiagnosed. A Greek physician, Hippocrates, who is considered the father of modern medicine, believed psychological disorders were due to an imbalance of four body fluids or humors: black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood. Melancholia was an early term for depression and meant “black bile.” Galen, a student of Hippocrates, studied the humoral theory and created a new biological model by treating humors, or temperaments with bloodletting. Bloodletting involved removing measured amounts of blood to treat imbalances in mood (eHow.com). Emil Kraepelin was a German psychiatrist who developed one of the first definitions of bipolar disorder. Kraepelin used the terms “manic depressive psychosis” because of the rollercoaster effect of bipolar disorder. In 1968, the Diagnostic Symptoms Manual (DSM) officially named this disorder, “manic depressive illness” and it remained classified as such until the 1990’s when it was renamed “bipolar disorder”. The clinical term bipolar refers to two “poles” or cycles of mood: melancholy and mania. In ancient times the treatment for bipolar disorder included bleeding, inducing vomiting, and rest and relaxation in curative mineral waters, also sterilization and institutionalization. These were the first treatments of the disorder, and were used for thousands of years. Electroshock therapy was also introduced as a treatment for manic depressive disorder. In 1954, lithium was used on patients with bipolar disorder and there was more success with lithium treatments than with any other treatment. After the success with lithium, other drugs that affect brain chemistry
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What is bipolar disorder - What is bipolar disorder Bipolar...

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