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9-28-10 - IV Motor Development A Hold head up sit with...

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9-28-10 IV. Motor Development A. Hold head up; sit with support; roll tummy to back (3-4 months) V. Newborn’s ability to learn A. Operant Conditioning (OC) – (Reinforcement, Punishment, and Extinction) Do newborns respond to reinforcement? Yes, but need many repetitions and behavior must be easy (sucking, tongue out, kicking) B. Classical conditioning – Pavlov’s dogs. - Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): food on tongue - Unconditioned Response (UR): salivation - Conditioned Stimulus (CS): bell - CS—UCS -> UR - CS -> CR - Newborns: o UCS = bottle with sugar water o UCR = pucker and suck o CS = pat on head o Pat – bottle -> pucker and suck o Pat -> pucker and suck - Newborns don’t classical condition to negative stimuli ex. Doctor gives shots: doesn’t lead to fear of doctor until couple months of age. C. Imitation – Newborns imitate very simple behaviors (e.g., sticking out tongue). To measure, count how many times a baby naturally sticks its tongue out, then stick tongue out repeatedly and then count how many times a baby sticks out its tongue after. If more, than imitation has occurred.
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