Styles of parenting during childhood and adolescence
A. 2 separate dimensions: emotionality and control
High: warm, loving, responsive to desires of child, “child-
Low: cold, rejecting, unresponsive, “parent-entered”
Control (how much control parents exert)
High: set clear rules, discipline when rules broken, don’t tolerate
unacceptable or immature behavior, hold high standards; monitor
Low: don’t set clear rules, lack of or inconsistent discipline, allow
child to express impulses
B. Parent style based on combined dimensions
C. Child outcomes that are likely with each parenting style
: anxious, low self concept, don’t feel in control of
life --- look to others for approval and what to do, vulnerable to stress
: non-compliant, low achievement, impulsive and
aggressive (usually not severe delinquent)
: Lack of attachment, low achievement, low social
competence, truancy, precocious sex, delinquency
: high self-concept, high achievement, high self-
control, little anti-social behavior, high attachment.
D. Exceptions to rules
For poor minorities in dangerous neighborhoods, kids show best
adjustment with Authoritarian.
Asian (e.g., Chinese) parent who are Authoritarian tend to be viewed
very positively and have positive child outcomes.
Authoritarian has different meaning in Asian culture, which values
following family and cultural standards over independence and
following internal standards.
II. Discipline (“punishment”)
Negative consequence when child misbehaves. NOT necessarily physical or
A. Which parents regularly use discipline? Authoritarian and Authoritative
B. How to use it effectively
When possible, negative consequences should be immediate
Rules and consequences for breaking rules should be clear