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Unformatted text preview: CH1 Book Terms – - Child Development – tries to identify and describe changes in the child’s cognitive, emotional, motor, and social capacities and behaviors from the beginning of life through adolescence/ are interested in what things change as children get older and how these changes come about.- Themes of Development – Origins of human behavior, the pattern of developmental change over time, and the individual and contextual forces that define and direct child development.- Maturation – the natural unfolding of development over the course of growth.- Pattern of Developmental Change: o Continuous process – whereby each new event builds on earlier experience (in this view, development is a smooth and gradual accumulation of abilities) o Discontinuous process – a series of discrete steps or stages which behaviors get reorganized into a qualitatively new set of behaviors.- Methods of Gathering Info: o Self Report – information that people provide about themselves (children are more apt to be less attentive, slower to respond, and to have more trouble understanding the qestions) o Peer Report – solicit info from people who know a child well (biased but their perceptions, expectations, beliefs, and interpretation of events are important) o Direct Observation – naturalistic setting (tend to express less negative emotion and exhibit more socially desirable behavior in unfamiliar settings)- Case study method – a form of research in which investigators study an individual person or group very intensly Terms –- Independent Variable (IV) - variable expected to have the effect.- Dependent variable (DV) – variable on which the effect is expected to occur. o Ex. Do peers tend to reject other kids who are overweight? IV – weight, DV – rejection… 5 Research Issues 1. Correlational vs. Experimental a. Correlational: measure degree to which scores on IV are related to scores on DV. (Pos – both increased or decreased/ Neg – one increased, one decreased) a.i. IV causes DV a.ii. DV causes IV a.iii. 3 rd variables cause BOTH IV and DV a.iv. More than one may be true Ex: Does prenatal responsiveness influence adjustment in newborns? Results: positive correlation – replicated. a.iv.1.a. Interpretation – based on these studies, can you say:- Being responsive caused newborns to be more adjusted? NO- Is there equally plausible way to explain correlation? – (3 rd variable/factor causing both) educational background, families, more money so mom stays home, good genes, social resources, etc. It can also mean that well- adjusted baby causes more parental responsiveness. b. Experimental: Measure what happens to DV as a result of “manipulating ” IV....
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- Fall '08
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