Test3 - Language Development I. Language is monumental...

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Language Development I. Language is monumental achievement A. Lot learned in shot time 1. By 4-5 years (prior to formal school): know 14,000 words; know rules of grammar (not exceptions); know how to modify speech to fit situation. 2. Know exceptions to rules by 7-8 years B. Functions 1. Communication; information, desires/needs, opinions, emotions 2. Influence others 3. Escape from reality via fantasy 4. Control our emotions and behavior II. 4 components of language that child masters A. Phonology : Rules for which sounds, sound combinations, and intonations are legitimate 1. Phoneme: legitimate sound; tu, gu, hu, du, ah versus trilled r, throaty ch 2. Phoneme combinations: bik, kib, bnik 3. Intonation e.g., question vs. statement B. Semantics: meaning of words and word combinations C. Grammar: structure of language 1. Morphology: a.a. Rules for manipulating “morphemes” = smallest unit of language with meaning: words, prefixes, suffixes a.b. Exs.: rules for making plurals, changing tense, turning noun to action word, negation 2. Syntax: how words are ordered in a sentence; exs: where to put negation, ordering of subject and object. D. Pragmatics: Rules for changing language as function of social context; e.g., talk different when at party vs. in class; Speak to adult vs. baby; Speak vs. write; Text message vs. letter III. Theories of language development A. Traditional Learning Theory: 1. Learning language is same as learning other behaviors 2. Principles hat apply to all learning: a.a. Reinforcement (of phonemes, words, grammar) *shaping process a.b. Imitation and generalization 3. Role of biology? Predisposed to respond to reinforcement and to imitate. 4. Role of child? Passive; parents must actively teach B. Nativist: a.b.1. We’re biologically programmed to learn language – ANY language, regardless of baby’s genes a.b.2. Born with LAD (language acquisition device) programmed to pick up phonemes, words, and grammar you’re exposed to.
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a.b.3. Role of environment? Need exposure for child to pick up language. Do NOT need reinforcement or corrections. a.b.4. NOT born with phonemes, words, or grammar of genetic language. If French, baby not biologically predisposed to speak French. Equally capable of learning any language. a.b.5. Role of child? Active: child figuring out rules C. Social Interactionist: a.b.5.a.i.1. Babies biologically predisposed to learn any language – LAD. But environment provides a LASS (language acquisition support system): Communicating with adults (about something meaningful) is crucial – not just listening to adult “Social discourse a.b.5.a.i.2. Parents discourse behaviors that help (often not intentional) a. Turn-taking games with infant b. “Parentese:” gets baby’s attention (baby talk) high pitch, slow, simple, rise intonation at end.
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Test3 - Language Development I. Language is monumental...

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