Test1 - Latin American Civilization What constitutes "Latin...

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Latin American Civilization What constitutes “Latin America” Geographic Diversity o Highlands o The Andes – World’s largest continuous mountain barrier o Central America The highlands create a rugged backbone that runs through the center of most countries o Mexico o Islands o Lowlands o Caribbean o Amazon o Piedmont o Deserts/Rainforest o “Ring of fire” Patagonia, Argentina Cultural Diversity o Indian o Straight black hair, dark eyes, copper-colored skin and short stature. o Non-sedentary societies – gathering and hunting groups (northern Mexico frontier, the Argentine Pampas, and the interior of Brazil) o Semi-sedentary – hunting, slash-and-burn agriculture o Fully sedentary – settled communities based on intensive agriculture, which provided enough surplus to support a hierarchical society (central Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia) o Aztecs and Mayas – Mexico and central America o Carib and Arawak – Caribbean o Chibcha – Colombia o Inca – Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia o Araucanian – Chile o Guarani – Paraguay o Tupi - Brazil o European o Iberian Peninsula o African o Slave trade started in Cuba in 1512 and in Brazil in 1538 o Came from West and Central Africa o The regions economies were based on agriculture
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o Muslim traders brought cloth, salt, steel swords, glass, and luxury goods in exchange for gold, slaves, ostrich feathers, fine leathers, decorative woods, and cola nuts. o Artists – bronze castings, carved wooden sculptures, ivory carving, cast gold, feather work, and painted leather o Recent Immigrants o Hybridity o Castas o Mestizaje o Transnationalsim o Religion – Catholicism mixed with indigenous religions Population Statistics o Today, 77% Urban o 1950s: 60% rural o 15% of Earth’s Land mass o 9% of World Population o Largest Cities o Mexico City: 18 million (#2) o Sao Paulo: 17 million (#4) o Buenos Aires: 12 million (#10) o Total Population, 585 million o Central America and Mexico: 153 million o Caribbean: 42 million o South America: 391 million o Most Populous Countries o Brazil, 193 million o Mexico, 110 million o Columbia, 45 million Analytical Tools… o Abstract concepts historians use to interpret the past… o Race - What is race? The social construction of difference based on appearance - What is ethnicity? Cultural differences - Race = ethnicity? Nope - “Identity” – social classes - Colonial Period Calidad – “quality” – equivalent to race Cofradias Cabildos o Organized people o Can be put into military services
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o Defacto militia units Castas - National Period Race and Nation Mestizaje Class What is class? Social Hierarchy, usually determined by wealth or callidad Colonial Period o Race and Class o Occupation ( Oficio ) National Period o Elites o Military o Middle Classes o Working Classes Gender What is gender? Indians
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This note was uploaded on 03/20/2012 for the course LAH 1093 taught by Professor Weber during the Fall '08 term at FSU.

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Test1 - Latin American Civilization What constitutes "Latin...

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