Financial statements, research reports, files, customer letters, etc.
External – outside the firm
Census reports, studies and magazines, business periodicals, etc.
Time savings, low cost
Data may be out of date, definitions or categories may not be right, not specific enough
data for this purpose
Primary data – newly collected for the project
Observational data – facts/figures obtained by watching, either mechanically or in
person, how people behave
Mechanical – people meter, Nielsen ratings, etc.
Personal methods – observational data of real people, ethnographic research
Neuromarketing Methods – brain scanning to identify buying processes to determine
what ads work and don’t work
Questionnaire data – facts/figures obtained by asking people about their attitudes,
awareness, intentions, and behaviors
Individual interview – single researcher asking questions of one respondent
Focus groups – informal sessions of 6 to 10 past, present, or prospective customers in
which discussion leader asks opinions; discussions are recorded via one-way mirror
Data can be collected online or via mail, telephone, fax
Open-ended question, closed-end or fixed alternative questions (multiple choice),