test 2 tough topics - Topics I'm Shaky On Perception...

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Topics I’m Shaky On 17:12 Perception Structural vs. functional influences James Vicary Wilson Bryan Key Blink Ads Heider’s Balance Theory Festinger’s Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Binocular Rivalry Schemas Media ownership, news expectations Chain ownership Corporate entanglements News’ Five Filters – ownership, advertising, reliance on sources, flack, anti-ideologies Five Largest Media Conglomerates Expectations of News – accuracy, objectivity, balance and fairness Contributors to News Inaccuracies – deadlines, competition, editing Encoding, bias Encoding  3 types of statements – reports, inferences, judgments Merril’s Time Magazine Study (6 categories of bias – attribution bias, adverbial bias,  adjective bias, outright opinion, contextual bias, photographic bias)
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Friedman, Mertz, and Dimatteo, 1980, Study of news anchor facial expressions Audiences Historical Notions of Audience Planned for in advance Localized in time and space Public and open message Setting indicated rank and status Voluntary Attendance  Motivated by enjoyment Audience Models Audience as Aggregate Audience Count Audience-supported media Public Opinion Passive or Active? Audience as Market Audience is viewed as somewhat active Have goals in mind while choosing media to consume Advertisers play to these goals as they attempt to sell their products to the consumers  (audience) Audience as Mass Reactive audience
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Propaganda Elitist phenomenon Grows out of mass society theory Audience as Active Ellul: 2 types of propaganda (political and sociological) Propaganda of Agitation vs. Propaganda of Integration Lee and Lee: Seven Propaganda Devices Name calling, glittering generality, transfer, testimonial, plain folks, card stacking, band  wagon Media effects Intentional vs. Unintentional Effects Historical Views of Media Effects Bullet/Hypodermic Needle Theory (1920’s-1940’s) Ex. War of the Worlds
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test 2 tough topics - Topics I'm Shaky On Perception...

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