Test 1 TB Notes - Test 1 TB Notes Chapter 1 Science and...

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Test 1 TB Notes 02:34 Chapter 1 – Science and Research  4 Phases of Research in Mass Media The medium itself Uses and users of the medium Effects of the medium How can the medium be improved 4 Major social forces encouraged growth of mass media research World War I – need to understand propaganda Stimulus-response point of view – attempted to uncover effects of media on people Hypodermic needle model of communication – communicators just need to shoot  messages at an audience and those messages would produce preplanned and almost  universal effects Realization of advertisers in 1950’s-1960’s that research data are useful in developing  ways to persuade customers to buy products and services Increasing interest in effects of media on the public, especially children Increased competition among media for advertising dollars Kerlinger and Lee’s methods of knowing Tenacity Intuition Authority Science Characteristics of the Scientific Method Scientific research is public
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Everyone can see results Science is objective Anyone measuring will get same results Science is empirical Researchers are concerned what is measurable Science is systematic and cumulative Research builds upon itself Science is predictive Helps explain future events Constitutive vs. Operational definition 8 Steps of Scientific Research Find a problem Review existing research Develop hypothesis/research question Develop research design Take measurements Analyze data Write results Replicate Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Academic vs. Private Research
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Sources for Research Information Professional Journals Magazines/Periodicals Research summaries Internet Everyday Situations Archive Data Secondary analysis – pros and cons Topic Relevance – Questions to Ask Is topic too broad? Can problem be investigated? Can data be analyzed? Pilot study – test of research procedures Is problem significant? Can results of study be generalized? External validity – must be possible to generalize results to other situations What costs and time are involved in analysis? Is planned approach appropriate to project? Parsimony principle/Ockham’s Razor = simplest research approach is always the best Is there any potential harm done to the subjects? Hypothesis – formal statement regarding relationship between variables and is tested  directly
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Research question – question intended to provide indications about something; not  limited to investigating relationships between variables Chapter 2 – Elements of Research Concepts vs. Constructs Concept – term for an abstract idea formed by generalizing from particulars and  summarizing related observations Ex. Table Construct – 3 characteristics
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2012 for the course BUAD 301 taught by Professor Mcnutt during the Fall '08 term at University of Delaware.

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Test 1 TB Notes - Test 1 TB Notes Chapter 1 Science and...

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