Study guide Part I geology lab

Study guide Part I geology lab - MINERALS The 8 Most...

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MINERALS The 8 Most Abundant Elements in the Earth’s Crust: Si +4 (4) Al +3 (4, or 6) Fe +2 (6) Mg +2 (6) Ca +2 (8) Na +1 (8) K +1 (8, 12) O -2 Coordination Number : how many elements the cations the element is able to bong with (in parenthesis) Cations have a positive charge. Anions have a negative charge. A non-crystalline solid occurs when a liquid cools very quickly, the molecules do not have time to arrange themselves in the most favorable pattern (which will almost always be crystalline ), and so they are locked into a disordered solid. (Examples: glass, wax, plastic, etc.) Oxygen and silicon are the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust, and the Si-O bond is among the strongest in minerals. Consequently, most of the crust is composed of silicate minerals: olivines - (Mg,Fe) 2 SiO 4 ; independent tetrahedra pyroxenes - (Mg,Fe) 2 Si 2 O 6 ) ; single chain amphiboles - ( W,X ,Al) 7-8 ( Z 4 O 11 ) 2 (OH) 2 ; double chains biotite mica - K(Mg.Fe) 3 (AlSi 3 O 10 )(OH) 2 ; sheet silicates muscovite mica - KAl 2 (AlSi3O10)(OH)2 ; sheet silicates alkali feldspars - KAlSi 3 O 8 ---NaAlSi 3 O 8 (solid solution series) ; framework silicates plagioclase feldspars - NaAlSi 3 O 8 ---CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 (solid solution series) ; framework silicates quartz - SiO 2 ; framework silicates (In the general formula for amphiboles given above: W = Ca, Na, and K (that can substitue for one another), X = Mg and Fe, and Z = Si and Al.)
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The cleavage of a mineral is the angle in which it breaks. Single-Chained silicates break at nearly 90° forming squares. Double-Chained silicates break in rhombic formations with 120° and 60° angles. Mafic : rich in magnesium and iron Felsic : riched in the lighter elements such as silicon, oxygen, aluminium, sodium, and potassium EARTH’S HEAT Under the intense bombardment of the Earth during its earliest history, the planet's temperature must have risen significantly, perhaps to the point where some part of the planet melted. Since that early history, the Earth has been cooling, but some of that original heat remains. The rate at which the temperature increases with depth in the Earth is the
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2012 for the course GEOLOGY (G 1000L taught by Professor Farmanullah during the Spring '11 term at FSU.

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Study guide Part I geology lab - MINERALS The 8 Most...

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