Lecture 5 Deductive Reasoning (I)

Lecture 5 Deductive Reasoning (I) - 03/17/12 1 CC2002...

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Unformatted text preview: 03/17/12 1 CC2002 Semester One 2011/12 Creative and Critical Thinking Lecture Five: Deductive Reasoning (I) 03/17/12 2 In todays lesson, We are going to learn: 1. What an argument is. 2. how to recognize arguments, and 3. some basic logical concepts, especially validity and soundness. 03/17/12 3 Again: What is a statement? What is a proposition? A statement ( / ) is a sentence( / ) which states that something is the case. A proposition ( ) is the meaning of a statement. A statement or a proposition- has a truth value, i.e. either true or false.- can be affirmed or denied.- is the building block of an argument or inference. E.g. It is raining. There are five books on the desk. 03/17/12 4 Inference and Argument Inference ( ): An inference is a mental process of linking propositions in which a proposition is claimed to be justified by other propositions . Argument ( ): An argument is a group of statements in which one statement is claimed to be justified by (or to follow from) other statements . 03/17/12 5 Premise and Conclusion Premise: The premise(s) of an argument is/are the statement(s) which is/are claimed to justify another statement of this argument . Conclusion: The conclusion of an argument is the statement which is claimed to be justified by other statement(s) of this argument . Argument Premise(s) Conclusion = + 03/17/12 6 The Relation between Premise and Conclusion According to what we just said, we may say that the premise(s) of an argument is/(are) claimed to justify the conclusion. Besides, we may also say the premise(s) of an argument is/(are) claimed to provide ground or reason for the conclusion, or to give support to the conclusion. 03/17/12 7 The Relation between Premise and Conclusion When one claims that the conclusion is justified by the premise (s), one asserts two things: (1) Inferential claim ( ): A claim that the conclusion is supported by the premises (2) Factual claim ( : A claim that the premise(s) is (are) true. 03/17/12 8 The Standard Form of an Argument An argument is usually written in standard form( ) as Premise 1 Premise 2 Premise 3 --------------------- Conclusion For example : ( ) ( )----------------------------------- ( ) All men are mortal. (premise) Socrates is a man. (premise)----------------------------------- Therefore, Socrates is mortal. (conclusion) 03/17/12 9 Recognizing Arguments Not all collections of statements are arguments....
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Lecture 5 Deductive Reasoning (I) - 03/17/12 1 CC2002...

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