Lecture 9 Fallacies I - CC2002SemesterOne11/12 FallaciesI 1...

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17/03/12   1 CC2002 Semester One 11/12 Creative and Critical Thinking Fallacies I
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17/03/12 2 What is a fallacy ( 謬謬 )?         - A Definition A fallacy is a mistake in thinking.  謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬
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17/03/12 3 The Classification of Fallacies According to Lee Tien Ming’s classification,  there are 4 categories of fallacy : 謬謬謬謬謬 謬 Fallacies of Inconsistency  謬謬謬謬謬謬 Fallacies of Irrelevance   謬謬謬謬謬謬 Fallacies of Insufficiency  謬謬謬謬謬謬 Fallacies of Inappropriate Presumption  謬謬謬謬謬謬謬
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17/03/12 4 I Fallacies of Inconsistency 謬謬謬謬 I1  謬謬謬謬 Self Contradiction I2  謬謬謬謬 Self Defeating I3  謬謬謬謬 Double Standard
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17/03/12 5 I Fallacies of Inconsistency 謬謬謬謬 謬謬 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 A person commits the fallacies of inconsistency  when what someone says is conflicting with  other things he says or does.
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17/03/12 6 I1 Self-contradiction 謬謬謬謬 1 謬謬 contradiction 1.1 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 謬謬謬謬 not p 謬謬謬謬謬謬 Contradiction is the relation between a proposition  p  and its denial  not p . 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 “Peter is reading” and “Peter is not reading” 1.2 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 Contradictory propositions can neither be both true nor both false.  1.3 p 謬謬 not p  謬謬謬謬 p 謬謬 not p 謬謬謬謬 * Are “The car is black” and “the car is white” contradictory?    
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17/03/12 7 I1 Self-contradiction 謬謬謬謬 2 謬謬謬謬 Self-contradiction 2.1 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 A person commits the fallacy of self-contradiction when he affirms two contradictory  propositions at the same time. 2.2 謬謬 p 謬謬謬謬 p 謬謬 “p and not p.” 2.3 謬謬 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 “We don’t employ any female here, but if you are a beautiful lady, we will hire you.”
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17/03/12 8 I2 Self-Defeating 謬謬謬謬 1 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 2 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 Though there is no contradiction involved in a speech, what it asserts conflicts with  the circumstances under which the utterance is made (e.g.  how  or  by whom  it is  made).  謬謬謬謬 ! 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬          “I never mention the word ‘failure’ under any circumstances.”      "I shall not comment on such distasteful programs."
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17/03/12 9
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