Lecture 9 Fallacies I - 1 CC2002 Semester One 11/12...

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Unformatted text preview: 17/03/12 1 CC2002 Semester One 11/12 Creative and Critical Thinking Fallacies I 17/03/12 2 What is a fallacy ( 謬謬 )? - A Definition A fallacy is a mistake in thinking. 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 , 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 17/03/12 3 The Classification of Fallacies According to Lee Tien Ming’s classification, there are 4 categories of fallacy : 謬謬謬謬謬 謬 Fallacies of Inconsistency 謬謬謬謬謬謬 Fallacies of Irrelevance 謬謬謬謬謬謬 Fallacies of Insufficiency 謬謬謬謬謬謬 Fallacies of Inappropriate Presumption 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 17/03/12 4 I Fallacies of Inconsistency 謬 謬謬謬謬 I1 謬謬謬謬 Self Contradiction I2 謬謬謬謬 Self Defeating I3 謬謬謬謬 Double Standard 17/03/12 5 I Fallacies of Inconsistency 謬 謬謬謬謬 謬謬 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 A person commits the fallacies of inconsistency when what someone says is conflicting with other things he says or does. 17/03/12 6 I1 Self-contradiction 謬謬謬謬 1 謬謬 contradiction 1.1 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 p 謬謬謬謬 not p 謬謬謬謬謬謬 Contradiction is the relation between a proposition p and its denial not p . 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 “Peter is reading” and “Peter is not reading” 1.2 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 Contradictory propositions can neither be both true nor both false. 1.3 p 謬謬 not p 謬謬謬謬 , p 謬謬 not p 謬謬謬謬 * Are “The car is black” and “the car is white” contradictory? 17/03/12 7 I1 Self-contradiction 謬謬謬謬 2 謬謬謬謬 Self-contradiction 2.1 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 A person commits the fallacy of self-contradiction when he affirms two contradictory propositions at the same time. 2.2 謬謬 謬 p 謬謬謬謬 p 謬謬 “p and not p.” 2.3 謬謬 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 “We don’t employ any female here, but if you are a beautiful lady, we will hire you.” 謬 17/03/12 8 I2 Self-Defeating 謬謬謬謬 1 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 2 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 Though there is no contradiction involved in a speech, what it asserts conflicts with the circumstances under which the utterance is made (e.g. how or by whom it is made). 謬 謬謬謬謬 ! 謬 謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬謬 “I never mention the word ‘failure’ under any circumstances.” "I shall not comment on such distasteful programs." 17/03/12...
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This note was uploaded on 03/17/2012 for the course COMP 3868 taught by Professor Keithchan during the Spring '97 term at Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

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Lecture 9 Fallacies I - 1 CC2002 Semester One 11/12...

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