quality management for engineers_chapter10

Quality management - ISE 527 Quality Management for Engineers(Fall 2011 Chapter 10 Statistical Thinking and Applications 1 Chapter 11 2 STATISTICAL

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1 ISE 527- Quality Management for Engineers (Fall 2011) Chapter 10- Statistical Thinking and Applications
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2 Chapter 11
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3 STATISTICAL THINKING
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4 Key Idea ü Raw data collected from the field do not provide the information necessary for quality control or improvement. ü Data must be organized, analyzed, and interpreted. ü Statistics provide an efficient and effective way of obtaining meaningful information from data, allowing managers and workers to control and improve processes. v7: 540 v8: 480
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5 Statistical Thinking All work occurs in a system of interconnected processes Variation exists in all processes Understanding and reducing variation are the keys to success v7: 542 v8: 482
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6 Sources of Variation in Production Processes Materials Tools Operators Methods Measurement Instruments Human Inspection Performance Environment Machines INPUTS PROCESS OUTPUTS v7: 542 v8: 482
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7 Variation Many sources of uncontrollable variation exist (common causes) Special (assignable) causes of variation can be recognized and controlled Failure to understand these differences can increase variation in a system v7: 543 v8: 483
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8 Sources of Variation in Production Processes Process part Source Variation source Type Input Materials Void Special cause Tools Wear Common cause Process Operators Feed rate Common cause Methods Set up in fixture Common cause Machines Level of maintenance Something breaks Common cause Special cause Environment Contamination Either Outputs Measurement instruments Evolving calibration Common (could be special if the instrument were dropped) Human inspection performance Varying standards Special cause if the inspection was not always the same feature v7: 542 v8: 482
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9 Key Idea A system governed only by common causes is called a stable system. Understanding a stable system and the differences between special and common causes of variation is essential for managing any system. v7: 543 v8: 483
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10 Problems Created by Variation Variation increases unpredictability. Variation reduces capacity utilization. Variation contributes to a “bullwhip” effect. Variation makes it difficult to find root causes. Variation makes it difficult to detect potential problems early. v7: 543 v8: 483
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11 Importance of Understanding Variation time PREDICTABLE LESS PREDICTIBLE
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12 Two Fundamental Management Mistakes Mistake Resulting action Effect Treating as a special cause any fault, complaint, mistake, breakdown, accident or shortage when it actually is due to common causes Find the problem Miss systemic issues and it can happen again. “Containment” may be inappropriate but management will demand closure. Attributing to common causes any fault, complaint, mistake, breakdown, accident or shortage when it actually is due to a special cause Find the root cause of variability Will focus on what is repeating in the process, and not think “out of the box”- an probably won’t develop an appropriate corrective action.
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13 Demming’s Red Bead Experiment Lessons Learned Quality is made at the top.
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2012 for the course ISE 527507 taught by Professor Usc during the Spring '10 term at USC.

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Quality management - ISE 527 Quality Management for Engineers(Fall 2011 Chapter 10 Statistical Thinking and Applications 1 Chapter 11 2 STATISTICAL

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