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p2020chap01 - PHYS-2020 General Physics II Course Lecture...

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PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture Notes Section I Dr. Donald G. Luttermoser East Tennessee State University Edition 3.3
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Abstract These class notes are designed for use of the instructor and students of the course PHYS-2020: General Physics II taught by Dr. Donald Luttermoser at East Tennessee State University. These notes make reference to the College Physics, 9th Edition (2012) textbook by Serway and Vuille.
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I. Electric Forces & Electric Fields A. Properties of Electric Charge. 1. Benjamin Franklin was the first to realize that there are two types of electric charge : a) Positive charge: + q . b) Negative charge: - q . 2. Like charges repel one another whereas unlike charges attract each other. 3. Electric charge is always conserved in any type of reaction or process. 4. In 1909, Robert Milliken discovered (via the Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment ) that if an object is charged, its charge is always in multiples of the fundamental unit of charge, e . a) Charge is said to be quantized . = q = ± e, ± 2 e, ± 3 e , etc. b) e = 1 . 60219 × 10 - 19 C (C Coulomb, in the SI system) = 4 . 80325 × 10 - 10 esu (esu electrostatic unit, in the cgs system). c) Elementary particles: i) Electron: q = - e . ii) Proton: q = + e . iii) Neutron: q = 0. I–1
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I–2 PHYS-2020: General Physics II B. Insulators and Conductors. 1. Conductors are materials in which electric charges move freely ( i.e. , they have low internal resistance ). a) Copper. b) Aluminum. c) Silver. 2. Insulators are materials in which electric charges do not freely move ( i.e. , they have high internal resistance ). a) Glass. b) Rubber. 3. Semiconductors are materials that lie in between these other two = if controlled amounts of foreign atoms are added to semi- conductors, their electrical properties can be changed by orders of magnitude. a) Silicon. b) Germanium. 4. The Earth can be considered to be an infinite reservoir of (or for) electrons. a) It can accept or supply an unlimited number of electrons. b) When a conductor is connected to the Earth ( e.g. , con- ducting wire or copper pipe), it is said to be grounded = lightning rods.
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Donald G. Luttermoser, ETSU I–3 5. An object can be charged in one of two ways: a) Conduction : Charge exchange through contact. i) If one charged object comes in contact with as sec- ond object, charge can move from the charged ob- ject to the uncharged object. ii) Rubbing two different materials together, called frictional work , can produce negative charge on one object and a positive charge on the other. b) Induction : Charge exchange with no contact. i) Charge one object. ii) This charge produces an electric field to form. iii) This electric field can then induce charges to mi- grate on a second object = the second object po- larizes (see Figure 15.4 in the textbook). C. Coulomb’s Law. 1. Coulomb’s law states that two electric charges experience a force between them such that: a) It is inversely proportional to the square of the separation r between the 2 particles along the line that joins them.
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