p2020chap12 - PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture...

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Unformatted text preview: PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture Notes Section XII Dr. Donald G. Luttermoser East Tennessee State University Edition 3.3 Abstract These class notes are designed for use of the instructor and students of the course PHYS-2020: General Physics II taught by Dr. Donald Luttermoser at East Tennessee State University. These notes make reference to the College Physics, 9th Edition (2012) textbook by Serway and Vuille. XII. Mirrors and Lenses A. Plane Mirrors. 1. Images formed by plane ( i.e. , flat) mirrors have the following properties: a) The image is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front. b) The image is unmagnified , virtual , and erect . 2. Image orientation: a) Erect : Image is oriented the same as the object. b) Inverted : Image is flipped 180 with respect to the ob- ject. 3. Image classification: a) Real : Image is on the same side of mirror as the object = light rays actually pass through the image point. b) Virtual : Image is on the opposite side of mirror from object = light rays appear to diverge from image point. 4. Image size is determined by the magnification of an object which is given by M image height object height = h prime h . (XII-1) XII1 XII2 PHYS-2020: General Physics II | M | > 1 = Image is bigger than object (magnified). | M | = 1 = Image is unmagnified (like a plane mirror). | M | < 1 = Image is smaller than object (demagnified). M > = Image is erect. M < = Image is inverted. M = 0 = No image is formed. 5. Ray Tracing Rules: a) Images form at the point where rays of light actually in- tersect (for real images) or from which they appear to originate (for virtual images). b) For plane mirrors, p (the object distance from the mirror) = q (the image distance from the mirror) and h = h prime . c) The following diagram shows how images are constructed for a plane mirror. i) One ray runs parallel to the optical axis ( line to the mirror surface at the center of the mirror) from the head of the object ( e.g. , Ray 1 in the figure). ii) One ray travels from the head through the mirror at the point where the optical axis intersects the mirror ( e.g. , Ray 2 in the figure). Mirror OBJECT h IMAGE h Optical Axis (defined wrt object base) p 1 q 2 i r Donald G. Luttermoser, ETSU XII3 B. Spherical Mirrors 1. Spherical mirrors have the shape of a segment of a sphere. a) Concave mirror : Reflecting surface is on the inside of the curved surface. b) Convex mirror : Reflecting surface is on the outside of the curved surface. Concave Mirror (this side) Convex Mirror (this side) 2. Constructing the image. Consider the following concave mirror: O h p Optical Axis (defined wrt mirror center) C Vertex (V) R I h q i r XII4 PHYS-2020: General Physics II a) The line that is normal to the mirror surface at the exact center is called the optical axis of the mirror....
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p2020chap12 - PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture...

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