Chapter_1 - Neamen Microelectronics 4e Chapter 1-1...

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Unformatted text preview: Neamen Microelectronics, 4e Chapter 1-1 Microelectronics Circuit Analysis and Design Donald A. Neamen Chapter 1 Semiconductor Materials and Devices Neamen Microelectronics, 4e Chapter 1-2 Assignments Read Chapter 1 HW#1 due on Friday 2/10/2012: Chapter1: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 55, 61 Neamen Microelectronics, 4e Chapter 1-3 In this chapter, we will: Gain a basic understanding of semiconductor material properties Two types of charged carriers that exist in a semiconductor Two mechanisms that generate currents in a semiconductor Determine the properties of a pn junction Ideal current–voltage characteristics of a pn junction diode Examine dc analysis techniques for diode circuits using various models to describe the nonlinear diode characteristics Develop an equivalent circuit for a diode that is used when a small, time-varying signal is applied to a diode circuit Gain an understanding of the properties and characteristics of a few specialized diodes Design a simple electronic thermometer using the temperature characteristics of a diode Neamen Microelectronics, 4e Chapter 1-4 Intrinsic Semiconductors Ideally 100% pure material Elemental semiconductors Silicon (Si) • Most common semiconductor used today Germanium (Ge) • First semiconductor used in p-n diodes Compound semiconductors Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Neamen Microelectronics, 4e Chapter 1-5 Silicon (Si) Covalent bonding of one Si atom with four other Si atoms to form tetrahedral unit cell. Valence electrons available at edge of crystal to bond to additional Si atoms. Neamen Microelectronics, 4e Chapter 1-6 Effect of Temperature At 0K, no bonds are broken. Si is an insulator. As temperature increases, a bond can break, releasing a valence electron and leaving a broken bond (hole). Current can flow. Neamen Microelectronics, 4e Chapter 1-7 Energy Band Diagram E v – Maximum energy of a valence electron or hole E c – Minimum energy of a free electron E g – Energy required to break the covalent bond Neamen Microelectronics, 4e Chapter 1-8 Movement of Holes A valence electron in a nearby bond can move to fill the broken bond, making it appear as if the ‘hole’ shifted locations. Neamen Microelectronics, 4e Chapter 1-9 Intrinsic Carrier Concentration kT E i g e BT n 2 2 3- = B – coefficient related to specific semiconductor T – temperature in Kelvin E g – semiconductor bandgap energy k – Boltzmann’s constant 3 10 10 5 . 1 ) 300 , (- = cm x K Si n i Neamen Microelectronics, 4e Chapter 1-10 Extrinsic Semiconductors Impurity atoms replace some of the atoms in crystal Column V atoms in Si are called donor impurities....
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Chapter_1 - Neamen Microelectronics 4e Chapter 1-1...

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