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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Managerial Accounting and the Business Environment Solutions to Questions 1-1 Managerial accounting is concerned with providing information to managers for use within the organization. Financial accounting is concerned with providing information to stockholders, creditors, and others outside of the organization. 1-2 A strategy is a game plan that enables a company to attract customers by distinguishing itself from competitors. The focal point of a companys strategy should be its target customers. 1-3 Customer value propositions fall into three broad categoriescustomer intimacy, operational excellence, and product leadership. A company with a customer intimacy strategy attempts to better understand and respond to its customers individual needs than its competitors. A company that adopts an operational excellence strategy attempts to deliver products faster, more conveniently, and at a lower price than its competitors. A company that has a product leadership strategy attempts to offer higher quality products than its competitors. 1-4 Managers carry out three major activities in an organization: planning, directing and motivating, and controlling. Planning involves establishing a basic strategy, selecting a course of action, and specifying how the action will be implemented. Directing and motivating involves mobilizing people to carry out plans and run routine operations. Controlling involves ensuring that the plan is actually carried out and is appropriately modified as circumstances change. 1-5 The Planning and Control Cycle involves formulating plans, implementing plans, measuring performance, and evaluating differences between planned and actual performance. 1-6 In contrast to financial accounting, managerial accounting: (1) focuses on the needs of managers rather than outsiders; (2) emphasizes decisions affecting the future rather than the financial consequences of past actions; (3) emphasizes relevance rather than objectivity and verifiability; (4) emphasizes timeliness rather than precision; (5) emphasizes the segments of an organization rather than summary data concerning the entire organization; (6) is not governed by GAAP; and (7) is not mandatory. 1-7 A person in a line position is directly involved in achieving the basic objectives of the organization. A person in a staff position provides services and assistance to other parts of the organization, but is not directly involved in achieving the basic objectives of the organization. 1-8 The Chief Financial Officer is responsible for providing timely and relevant data to support planning and control activities and for preparing financial statements for external users. 1-9 The three main categories of inventories in a manufacturing company are raw materials, work in process, and finished goods....
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