History Midterm Study Guide
Part 1- ID’s
-Ancient Bison: also known as a Mammoth, been extinct for 10,000 years and an arrow head was
found with bones, meaning there were people that long ago. Became extinct because of climate
change and hunting
-The Real Discovery of America: People crossed the Bering Strait and populated the Americas
thousands of years before Christopher Columbus. They were a hunter gatherer society,
transitioning into agricultural, around 4.5 million when Europeans came.
-Pocahontas: Native American, daughter of powerful Indian chief Powhatan. Myth that she threw
herself over John Smith’s body when her father attempted to murder him. Myth created to ease
Europeans’ minds that the Native Americans wanted them there. Was a child, but image is of a
sexy babe. Married John Rolfe and had a son named Thomas; died in Europe in 1617 from
-John Smith: Englishman that Pocahontas allegedly saved from her father. Wrote 10 years after
Pocahontas died that they had a love affair, Explorer.
-Powhatan: Powerful chief of the Native Americans in the Jamestown region, Father of
-The Atlantic World: The continents touching the Atlantic Ocean, including the Americas,
Caribbean, Africa, and Europe.
-Queen Isabella: Queen of Spain, married to King Ferdinand, funded Christopher Columbus’ trip
‘around the world to Asia.’ Spain powerful in the 1500’s
-Christopher Columbus: Believed that he could sail west and get to Asia, sailed in 1492 and
landed in San Salvador three months later, died believing it was Asia.
-Hernan Cortes: Spanish, Conquered the Aztecs in Mexico, got help from Indians, disease, guns,
and some people thinking he was a deity helped him.
-Columbian Exchange: Exchange of goods between Europe, Africa, and the Americas; Food,
diseases, farm animals, metal, guns, slaves, Christianity brought to the New World, raw
agricultural crops came from Americas
-The Lost Colony: England settled the coast of Virginia in the 1580’s in a colony called Roanoke,
England was fighting Spain and didn’t send supplies for three years; when they returned, the
colonists were gone, only clues were ‘Croatoans’ written on a tree. Today, it is still a mystery as
to where they went.