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PSYC100 final exam study guide

PSYC100 final exam study guide - 21:43 21:43 21:43 21:43...

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Testing/IQ 21:43 Intelligence is the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and deal adaptively with the environment general mental capacity, specific mental abilities Psychological Tests – method for measuring individual differences related to some psychological construct mental tests are very important and strongly relied on what is a psychological test? Any standardized measure of behavior i.e. how you answer questions, SATs purpose is to measure differences among individuals where people fall in variability avg, low or high need to account for factors that can affect results of tests shift up or down from accurate score i.e. sleep, glucose deprived, stress, personal situations affecting concentration, person next to you farting goal of test is to be designed to reduce sampling error psychometrics = statistical study of psychological tests approach attempts to map structure of intellect and how many classes of mental ability underlie test performance factor analysis – correlate tests scores to identify clusters that correlate highly with one another and must have a common underlying factor, i.e. verbal ability or math reasoning g factor = general intelligence capacity that underlies more specific intellectual abilities core of intelligence, cuts across virtually all tasks Crystallized intelligence = ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems Fluid intelligence = ability to deal with situations in which personal experience does not provide a solution shift from fluid to crystallize as we attain wisdom Three-stratum theory of cognitive abilities = 3 levels of mental skills: general, broad and narrow, in a hierarchical model Cognitive process theories = approaches to intelligence that analyze the mental processes that underlie intelligent thinking
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Testing/IQ 21:43 Triarchic theory of intelligence = theory distinguishing between analytical, practical and creative intelligence Analytical intelligence = academically oriented problem-solving skills measured by traditional intelligence tests Practical intelligence = skills needed to cope with everyday demands and to manage oneself and other people effectively Creative intelligence = the mental skills needed to deal adaptively with novel problems Emotional intelligence = ability to read and respond appropriately to others’ emotions and control one’s own emotions Mental Ability Tests Achievement Tests – designed to measure achievement or knowledge in particular domains i.e. exams Aptitude tests – designed to measure potential in a particular domain i.e SATs colleges try to choose students who are more likely to succeed and graduate w/a degree Hypothetical constructs – tests designed to measure theories, like general intelligence (IQ) or ADHD Standardization – test administered under uniform circumstances, like the SATs Done to reduce variability of sampling errors Norms – score itself is only meaningful in relation to other ppl’s scores i.e. curving grades
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