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IntrapersonalCognition - Theories of Intrapersonal...

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Unformatted text preview: Theories of Intrapersonal Communication & Cognition Theories Background o Research regarding message production (“encoding”) is central to communication communication • Imagined message, intended message, uttered message, etc. etc. o Cognitive focus contrasts with a focus on strictly behaviors o Useful theories in this area link “what’s in the head” with “messages produced” produced” 5 theories, 3 are in the book Constructivist Theory: o We use construct systems (interpretist sort of theory) We • Constructs help make sense of world based on groupings of similarities and differences (ex. food) groupings • Domain specific: constructs about people, relationships, interactions, etc. are key (ex. People—different interactions, relationships, categories, types of interaction) (we relationships, organize based on these categories) organize • Construct systems can be described in terms of their differentiation, organization, and abstraction (are they differentiation organization and (are hierarchical…how categorized) hierarchical…how o If a person has a construct system high in these qualities, that person is said to be cognitively complex (used in a lot of ways; describe people’s abilities to do cognitively things. Has a lot to do with how much you can do at once, how you see the things. world) (If cognitively complex they see things in different shades, see world) relationships in different ways instead of concrete) relationships Constructivist Theory: o Person-Centered Communication is key • Messages adapt to needs of listeners, account for situation, and attend to multiple goals (not just about situation, the task or relationship; about both and more…multiple the goals) (do engage, not stuck in standard routine) goals) Known by several names: • (e.g.) Rhetorical sensitivity, perspective taking, selfmonitoring, audience awareness, listener adaptation o Who uses person-centered communication? • Culturally influenced via others’ talk and views • Can be taught/trained The degree has to do with cultural/social influences. If you are around people who don’t adapt, may be hard. Constructivist Theory: Constructivist o The link between cognition and message: • People who are more cognitively complex will produce more person-centered messages (ultimately the ideas of (ultimately both are related) both o Likely explanation: • Cognitively complex individuals may be better at attending to multiple goals in interaction (part of what multiple makes center-person may be the ability to be not only makes affective but appropriate; not only getting the job done affective but developing relationships) but o Person-centered messages enhance ability to meet communication goals • More persuasive; other beneficial outcomes Get people to be more cognitively complex by: -education ( introduce them to more ideas, categories) -travel or exposure to different things -Theory starts more with cognition and how it affects the message Message Design Logics o People use different logics in deciding what to say to another person in a given situation given • Logics describe thought process behind messages • Help to manage instrumental and face goals o Three Message Design Logics: Three • Expressive Design Logic: Open, reactive, little concern for other for • Conventional Design Logic: Follows rules of politeness and other accepted rules/norms politeness • Rhetorical Design Logic: Flexible, insightful and more person-centered person-centered Message Design Logics o Problems interacting with different MDLs When individuals share the same MDL they are more likely to acknowledge communication problems acknowledge When individuals have different MDLs they are more likely to blame their problems on the other’s bad intentions, mistaken blame beliefs, or undesirable personality characteristics beliefs, Expectancy Violation Theory: EVT Expectancy o Began as theory of nonverbal behavior, but has expanded o EVT considers expectations about interaction and what happens if those expectations are violated expectations • A central tenet of EVT is that we have expectations (expectancies) about verbal and nonverbal behavior during interaction during • These expectancies are based on both cultural norms and individual relationships and • Expectancies operate within a range • We are often unaware of our expectancies until they have been violated have Expectancy Violation Theory: EVT o Violations • When an expectation is violated, we feel arousal (of When arousal some sort…heightened awareness) some • Arousal spurs an “orienting” reaction in which we look to find source/cause of the violation to o Impact of violations depends on: Violation valence - VV (+/-) Communicator reward valence - CRV (+/-) Not all violations are negative; violation in terms that it is not what we expected Have to do some sort of assessment of whoever the violator is …this is CRV; is this someone that can reward me or not. Positive valence example: someone you like, superior or boss, anyone who can reward through communication or other resources hey have Expectancy Violations Theory o EVT makes predictions as to how individuals will react to a given violation Reciprocate: match someone’s behavior Reciprocate: Compensate: counteract by doing the opposite of your partner’s behavior behavior o Predictable patterns develop Predictable (VV +) + (CRV+) = reciprocate (give a gift, do something nice back) (VV -) + (CRV-) = reciprocate (VV (VV -) + (CRV+) = compensate (teacher sits right next to you, grades your exams…accommodate for his actions) your (VV +) + (CRV-) = reciprocate or compensate (depends on how (VV or perceive) perceive) Imagined Interactions Imagined (Honeycutt and colleagues) (Honeycutt o Social cognitive process where one imagines themselves in anticipated or past interactions interactions • Research says most occur prior to actual encounters • A way cognitive structures get represented in communication • Similar to real conversations in many ways Ex. Interview, break up, or starting relationship (high risk involved want to work through it first), breaking news to someone; want to be careful about what you say and how you say it o Vary on range of dimensions, but 3 key functions: • Increased understanding of self and others • Rehearsal (planning for anticipated interaction) • Catharsis (relieving tension) o Allow opportunities to consider interactions, anticipating/ reacting to responses, and assuming others’ roles responses, Theories of Planning and Goals: o Communicative goals provide destination • Primary goals in interaction define what a person is trying to accomplish (ex. Graduate) • Secondary goals are typically concerned with relational issues in interaction issues o We can also consider “meta-goals” that guide interaction We • E.g., efficiency and appropriateness of interaction E.g., efficiency appropriateness Theories of Planning and Goals: o Interaction plans provide the road map for achieving interaction goals • Plans are hierarchically ordered • Mental representations of steps to reach goal o The “hierarchy principle” suggests: • When plans are thwarted: • adjustments are made with concrete/specific changes (low-level) changes • More abstract changes in plans are cognitively demanding (new interaction plan, different) demanding • Motivation to achieve goal influences level of planning ...
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