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Discourse_Messages (1)

Discourse_Messages (1) - Theories of Messages and Discourse...

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Unformatted text preview: Theories of Messages and Discourse and Problematic Integration Theory: *General theory of how individuals receive, process, and make sense of messages *Individuals integrate two kinds of judgments about events/issues in our lives: *Probabilistic judgments involve an assessment of how likely something is to occur occur *Evaluative judgments involve an assessment of the relative goodness of a state of affairs of Problematic Integration Theory: *Integration of some judgments is not problematic Integration not *Four forms of integration are problematic: *Divergence *Uncertainty *Ambivalence *Impossibility *Communication serves as a medium and a resource for problematic integration Speech Act Theory: Speech *Central tenet of Speech Act Theory is that individuals perform actions with words they speak *Levels of Speech Acts *Utterance level: the mere stringing together of words the *Propositional level: statement is considered in terms of its truth value statement *Illocutionary level: statement is considered in terms of its practical force statement *Perlocutionary level: statement is considered in terms of effect on receiver statement Speech Act Theory: *Five types of speech acts: Five *Assertives *Directives *Commissives *Expressives *Declaratives *Interactants make sense of speech acts through application of: *Felicity conditions *Rules CAT: Communication Accommodation Theory Communication *CAT considers the ways in which people accommodate (adapt communication) to others during interaction through 2 main processes: interaction *Convergence: Process through which interactants become more like each other in Process interaction interaction *“Identification” with the “in-group” *Divergence: Process through which interactants accentuate communicative differences Process *“Disidentification” with external “out-group” CAT: Communication Accommodation Theory *Dimensions of convergence/divergence: *Upward or downward downward *Unimodal or multimodal multimodal *Symmetrical or asymmetrical asymmetrical *Objective or perceptual perceptual *Partial, full, or “hyper” CAT: Communication Accommodation Theory CAT: *Other Keys: *Power and status are key in knowing who likely adapts to whom *Consequences depend on perceived motive of the interactant *Convergence costs can outweigh convergence benefits *Convergence/divergence influenced by situation/norms Uncertainty Reduction Theory *Berger & Calabrese *Explains and predict when, why, and how individuals use communication to minimize their doubts when interacting with others doubts *Based on three assumptions *Primary goal of communication is to minimize uncertainties that we have about the world world *Uncertainty is pervasive and unpleasant *Communication is primary means of reducing uncertainty Uncertainty Reduction Theory *Three antecedent conditions influence motivation to reduce uncertainty * Anticipation of future interaction * Incentive value * Deviance *Two types of uncertainty: *Behavioral and Cognitive *Three uncertainty reduction strategies *Passive, active, and interactive Uncertainty Reduction Theory 8 Axioms Explaining the Uncertainty Reduction Process (see Table 3.3) *Axiom 1: Verbal communication *Axiom 2: Welcoming nonverbal communication *Axiom 3: Information-seeking behaviors *Axiom 4: Intimacy *Axiom 5: Reciprocal communication strategies *Axiom 6: Perceived similarities *Axiom 7: Liking *Axiom 8: Shared communication networks Interaction Sequences *Scheme for interaction in ongoing relationships: *One-up: take control *One-down: gives control *One-across: neither gives nor takes control *Used to look for patterns in interacts and double interacts Used interacts double *Complementarity *Symmetry ...
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