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chapter1_2_notes_ - Chapter 1 Introduction to Highway...

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis Highways: ± Influence is economic, social and political ± Have been studied as a cultural, political and economic phenomenon. Highway trends: ± Emphasis shifting from the construction of the mid-20 th century (e.g., US Interstate system, the greatest Civil Engineering project of all time) ± Current focus: ± Infrastructure maintenance and rehabilitation, ± Improvements in operational efficiency, ± Various traffic-congestion relief measures, ± Energy conservation, ± Improved safety and ± Environmental mitigation. 1.2 Highways and the Economy ± 15% of household income spent on vehicles ± 16 million new vehicles sold in the US annually ± Vehicle industry $400 billion in vehicle sales ± 5 million jobs related to vehicle production and maintenance ± Over $200 billion spent annually on construction and maintenance of highways ± Highways critical to industrial and retail supply chains (just-in-time inventory, etc.) ± Highways strongly influence economic development 1.3 Highways Energy and the Environment ± In US, highways responsible for 60% of petroleum consumption (12 million barrels of oil per day) ± Highways responsible for 25% of US greenhouse emissions ± 35 percent of all nitrous oxide emissions (NOx) ± 25 percent of volatile organic compound emissions (VOC) ± More than 50 percent of all carbon monoxide (CO) emissions ± Major source of fine particulate matter (2.5 microns or smaller, PM 2.5 ), which is a known carcinogen.
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1.4 Highways and the Transportation System ± For passenger travel, highways account for about 90 percent of all passenger-miles (passenger-kilometers) ± Trucks account for about 37 percent of the freight ton-miles (metric ton-kilometers) and nearly 80 percent of the value of all transported goods 1.5 Elements of Highway Transportation 1.5.1 Passenger Transportation Modes and Traffic Congestion ± In the last 50 years, the percentage of trips taken in private vehicles has risen from slightly less than 70 percent to over 90 percent (public transit and other modes make up the balance) ± Over this same period, the average private-vehicle occupancy has dropped from 1.22 to 1.09 persons per vehicle ± Result: Massive traffic congestion that is difficult to manage 1.5.2 Highway Safety ± Highway safety involves technical and behavioral components and the complexities of the human/machine interface. ± Safety improvements: ± Highway design (such as more stringent design guidelines, breakaway signs, an so on), ± Vehicle occupant protection (safety belts, padded dashboards, collapsible steering columns, driver- and passenger-side airbags, improved bumper design), ± Vehicle technologies (anti-lock braking, traction control systems, electronic stability control) and ± New accident countermeasures (campaigns to reduce drunk driving) ± Still 40,000 people die in US on highways
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1.6 Highways and Evolving Technologies 1.6.1 Infrastructure Technologies ± New technologies to assist in construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation ±
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chapter1_2_notes_ - Chapter 1 Introduction to Highway...

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