Chapter 1 Introduction to Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis Highways: Influence is economic, social and political Have been studied as a cultural, political and economic phenomenon. Highway trends: Emphasis shifting from the construction of the mid-20thcentury (e.g., US Interstate system, the greatest Civil Engineering project of all time) Current focus: Infrastructure maintenance and rehabilitation, Improvements in operational efficiency, Various traffic-congestion relief measures, Energy conservation, Improved safety and Environmental mitigation. 1.2Highways and the Economy 15% of household income spent on vehicles 16 million new vehicles sold in the US annually Vehicle industry $400 billion in vehicle sales 5 million jobs related to vehicle production and maintenance Over $200 billion spent annually on construction and maintenance of highways Highways critical to industrial and retail supply chains (just-in-time inventory, etc.) Highways strongly influence economic development 1.3Highways Energy and the Environment In US, highways responsible for 60% of petroleum consumption (12 million barrels of oil per day) Highways responsible for 25% of US greenhouse emissions 35 percent of all nitrous oxide emissions (NOx) 25 percent of volatile organic compound emissions (VOC) More than 50 percent of all carbon monoxide (CO) emissions Major source of fine particulate matter (2.5 microns or smaller, PM2.5), which is a known carcinogen.
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